Lake George Lake Champlain SEWAGE and TOXINS Galore

1500  Acres  of  Sewage and Toxic Chemicals

Do  a  Word Search  for  SLUDGE   Here





Dilution/flushing has been documented as an effective restoration technique for Moses and Green Lakes in Washington State. The dilutionDILUTION/FLUSHING

FLUSHING  THE  COMMODE  via The  Poop  Chute  River  for  TWO CENTURIES



Research  The Lake  George Park Commission and  NYS  Conservation Commission’s   PINHOLE   in  the  BATH  TUB

Long BEFORE John Apperson or Irvine Langmuir or Frank Leonobruno. NOTE the WINTER TIME LAKE DRAW DOWN Exacerbates and Greatly Worsens the Dock, Boat House, Shoreline Damage. The Rule Curve is destroying the ISLANDS …… Annual Report – Page 109 – Google Books Result
New York (State). Conservation Dept – 1919 – ‎New York (State)
PROTECTING LAKE GEORGE ISLANDS The work of protecting the shores of the State-owned islands in Lake George from damage caused by waves and ice, …





Flushing the Sewage and Mill Wastes and Cesspool known as Lake George is REALITY


THE UNFILTERED TRUTH ABOUT NYS  DEC’s  and the Loving Caring  Environmentalists of  New York ……  The  GOOD  NEWS  Andy Cuomo is  DEMANDING   The  Fake  Press   NOT  BROADCAST  about The  Champlain and Lake George Water Sheds





A Pictorial Presentation of  How  all  those  BROWN FIELDS /  LEACH FIELDS and SEPTIC  SYSTEMS  are  Killing  Lake  George ….. This is how  Chemicals and  Sewage  Leach into  Lake  George

There are THOUSANDS of  Lake Side  Leach Fields all over the  Lake George  Basin.  The  Bedrock causes all  that  Sewage and Chemicals to  Leach into  the  Lake …..  Go Figure  RightSepticFlowKEEP   FLUSHING  FLUSHING  ANDY


7    Places to Swim    That Are Not Lake Champlain 

FLUSHING THE POLLUTION  from the La Chute  River and  FLUSHING  the  Pollution and  Sewage / Leachate from Lake George

YES and the  US  ARMY  knows  all  about  FLUSHING
Omaha, NE — The annual sediment flushing exercise will be completed at Cherry Creek Reservoir, near Aurora, Colorado on Wednesday, June 1, 2016.

Katie Seefus, water manager in the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers’ Omaha District office, says …. “When the gates are opened, the high velocity of the water leaving the reservoir scours the area immediately upstream of the gates and transports sediment with the flow,” said Seefus.  The sediment flush is required to allow proper operation of the outlet gates.   ( Just Like Lake George and the  Poop Chute River  )

Recently on Lake George there was a  Tragic  Accident and as a result a precious Young  Girl in that accident lost Her life.  Following the Accident it is said that the Party operating one of the Boats engaged in actions to conceal the Boat and Themselves from being identified as a Party to this extremely unfortunate Accident.   Concealing and Hiding from the  Scene is a central element to Warren County, The State of  New York’s prosecution in this very very sad event that happened on Lake George.   Our World lost an incredible Young Girl and Her Family lost so much more.  There are no words to express how deeply this Accident has effected  ALL the  Family members involved and the Young People Who are in this story as well.  ALL  THE  WAY  AROUND a very sad moment in Lake George History.

The research and investigation associated with this series of events reveal something remarkably different.   The  Operations of  Flushing vast Industrial Wastes and Billions of  Gallons of  Poisoned and Contaminated Materials and Water …… was done INTENTIONALLY,  By  design, on purpose or  with SCINTER.   Hiding the wastes, secreting the Poisoning of  Two New York Lakes and concealing the liability for the destruction of  Marinas, Boat Houses, Islands, Shoreline and costing untold BILLIONS in damages.   I write as the last surviving Son of  Anita and Clifford  Witham …… the founders and original developers of the SWAMP /  East Shores Harbour Marina at Harris Bay on Lake George.  The Lake Ice Manipulations by The State of New York and the International Paper with Systems Properties and others with FINANCIAL INTERESTS in mind did this destruction  INTENTIONALLY.   Their Efforts to  Hide It and Conceal It as well as avoid Financial Responsibility are  herewith  EXPOSED.


This is what the  History Shows ……  Son of  the  Swamp Fox 


High Water Sinks State Islands 1919  ….. Annual Dock, Boat House Damages ….. see NYS  Conservation Commissioner  George D. Pratt  ……   Gentleman’s Agreement to END all  the  Annual Property Damage

Fitchburg Sentinel from Fitchburg, Massachusetts · Page 38

Dec 10, 1970 – Fitchburg Sentinel (Fitchburg, Massachusetts), Thursday, December 10, 1970, Page 38. … Lake Champlain, which forms Vermont’s scenic western border, … A million and a half cubic vards of paper mill sludge, nearly half the …




Calculating the  Millions of  Pounds of  Ice and  Snow   LOWERED every Winter on Lake  George  BY  THE  STATE ……  Reveals  Why  Docks  and  Marinas   Such as  the  Witham’s at  Harris  Bay  were  CRUSHED  and  then  Shredded when the  Lake Is  REFILLED because of  the  INADEQUATE  DAM  CAPACITY  and  the  POWER GENERATORS  ……..  Dumping  Water Through the  Generators  all  WINTER.    The  Pinhole in the  Bath Tub ….. The Inadequate Dam ?

State of VERMONT v. State of NEW YORK et al. | US Law …


State of VERMONT v. State of NEW YORK et al … that company and New York are responsible for a sludge bed in Lake Champlain and Ticonderoga Creek that has …


The United States  Army,  US  EPA, State of  Vermont and many many many THOUSANDS of  Witnesses NOW KNOW …..  Winter Time  Flushings  casued  the  ANNUAL  Boat House and Dock Damages on  Lake  George ……  THEY  STILL  ARE

A Fact2

The Upper  Privilege   DAM  ” A ”   Keeps  Lake  George 8 +  Feet  Higher  than  Natural   (see page  34 )


The Upper  Privilege   DAM  ” A ”   Keeps  Lake  George 8 +  Feet  Higher  than  Natural   (see page  34 )

Report on Pollution of the Interstate Waters of Lake …



FROM  1971  Just  before   My  Father’s  and  Oldest  Brother’s Deaths


Do You Want  GOOD  JOBS  or  CLEAN  WATER ?

Champlain Sludge Remains Problem – The New York Times…

Jun 23, 1971 · TICONDEROGA, N. Y. — The air and the water in this village at the foot of the Adirondacks are purer than they were several months … Sludge Still a Problem.


Generating all  that  Winter Time Pricey  Electricity

FLUSHING  ALL  THAT  LEACHATE  AND  SEWAGE  AND  TOXIC  SLOP  AT  LAKE  GEORGE  AND  TICONDEROGA …..  Poor  Lake  Champlain …….  1500 +  Acres  of  Poop  and  Pee  and  Wastes  with Industrial  Chemicals  ……   POISONING  LAKE  CHAMPLAIN


Lake George is a natural lake whose … The capacity has been likened to draining a bathtub through a pinhole. When … Lake George Park Commission P.O. Box 749 …


The  INADEQUATE  SPILLWAY  46%  Capable of  handling a  100 or  200 Year Flood

Oh and  Generating  Pricey  Electricity during WINTER  uses  all  that  Water …..  Systems  Properties  and  Now  ENEL  Power  Use  the  Drawdown Water in the  Winter for  that  PRICEY  ELECTRICITY



1500  Acres  of  Sewage  and  Toxic  Sludge


1500  Acres  of  Toxic  Sewage, Leachate and  Sludge


LAKE  IS  DAMNED  8+  Feet  Higher  than  NATURAL


1500  ACRES  of  SEWAGE  and  TOXINS






Listen to the  US  Supreme Court’s  RECORDED  Discussion of  the  1500  Acres  of  TOXIC  MESS


1,300,000,000  Pieces of Admissible Evidence Listen to the United States Supreme Court Discuss the Huge Pile of Toxic Slop ……..




Adirondack Legal History: The Lake George Trespass Case …

… (controlling the dam at Ticonderoga) … to Flush International Paper’s … the West of Fort Ticonderoga created by the SLUDGE on …

Draw Down Lake George – Expose The Pin Hole Project | The …

… there was conveyed to it by International Paper … 1500 Acres of Toxic Mill Wastes and Ticonderoga SEWAGE. … Dam ” A “ The SLUDGE Ponds …

State and Vermont in Accord On Paper Plant’s Lake ……

Sep 24, 1974 · … agree that sewage treatment plant for Ticonderoga, … ver the pollution to Champlain ram a Ticonderoga paper mill that was … the sludge to remain …





NOTE  FROM  THE  AUTHOR …….  The  Winter Time  FLUSHINGS caused  vast huge  Dock and Boat House, Shoreline and Island Damage for  DECADES

This  is  a  LETTER  to  the  State of  New  York,  PARK  COMMISSION  and  Warren County Law Enforcement  as  well as  Town of  Queensbury   and  NEW  YORK’S  LEGISLATURE,    DEC  and  Governor….  Basil  Seggos,  Dan  Stec and  Betty  Little

SwampFox <>

4:00 AM (2 hours ago)

to georgia, Supervisor, Richard, Margaret, Kristy, Annette


The  State’s  Lake  Ice  GAMES  certainly  left  a  HUGE  NUMBER  of  Finger Prints,  Tread  Marks,  DNA and what  TRACE  EVIDENCE …….  and  Train Loads  of  US  Supreme Court  Records etc  etc  etc  etc  ……..  SEEMS  Like  the  Lake  George   FLUSHER  Works  are  a  bit     WITHOUT  ANY  CLOTHES.
Unlike  New  York’s  Environmental  Conservation  Mafia  ……..   Mother and  Dad  did  NOT  do  THIS
Flushing  this  much  SHIT  is  impossible  to  HIDE
———- Forwarded message ———-
From: SwampFox <>
Date: Wed, Feb 15, 2017 at 3:32 AM
Subject: Police State KGB, STAZI, GRU, Intelligence State FOIL
To: Marisa Muratori <>, “Miller, Kristy” <>, Keith Fish <>, “Mannix, Margaret” <>, “” <>, “Martin, Darla J (DEC)” <>,, roger <>, Ken Tingley <>
Cc: Richard Hayes Phillips <>, Lake George Village Clerk <>, Supervisor Lake George <>
Dear Major  James A. LaFarr,  Sheriff  Bud  York  Etc.  Et Al,
In connection with a  GRANTED  FOIL / FOIA  access directed to  EVCON in  Colonie NY when Their Offices were on Wolf Road,  I was advised I could inspect and copy  The State of New York’s  Investigation Files that EVCON had amassed on My Mother and Father and Family.   During that trip from Lake George to Colonie I was taken to a large filing cabinet room and handed  TWO  large files ( 2 inches thick )  on My Parents and Our  Family.   The file was an intimate dossier  on the  PERSONAL INFORMATION  and other Private information about  Anita and Clifford Witham’s  Family and focused on the Swamp / East Shores Harbour Marina.
About 2 or 3  minutes after I was handed the files by  an EVCON  Lawyer who had granted the inspection and access …….  I was  physically assaulted and the DOSSIERS  were violently ripped out of My Arms by a  plain clothes  EVCON  Ranger Administrator /  Manager.   This sort of  NAZI  treatment to  SECRET the  Targeting of the  Witham Family  for  Their 600 Acres, Marina,  Home and lives at  Harris  Bay ……   Has been the  Custom, Policy and Practice of the  Environmental Commission /  EVCON and  DEC for a very extended period.    The Filing Cabinet Room would have held many THOUSANDS of  Files.  
What the  Warren County Attorney, District Attorney, Sherriff’s Office and  Warren County Supervisors and  New York State  DEC need to  grasp is very simple ……..   Anita and Clifford Witham were being  SECRETLY INVESTIGATED  with many others …….  Land  Acquisition,  Digging for  Weak Spots in the  Families  Financial Information,  seeking  avenues and means to aquire 100s of  thousands and millions of  acres  for  THE  WILDERNESS  SOCIETY’S   Grand    PARK  within the Blue Line  was  the  AIM of  these SECRETIVE  Dossiers  and  SECRETIVE  Investigations.
The  REALITY of  Intentional Lake Ice  Drawdowns  by the  State of  New York during Winter Ice Cover are  EXPOSED as  You can plainly see  from the  State of  New York’s,  Lake  George Association, LG  Park Commission and  DEC’s  own  COURT STATEMENTS  and COURT  TESTIMONIES.   The  Legal Record is  full  of  BATH TUB and PINHOLE …… Winter Time  Water Release Testimony, Reports and Records.    FACT IS  The Islands,  Shoreline, Boat Houses and Docks  all over Lake George were as a direct result of the  WINTER LAKE LOWERINGS …… enormously damaged.
The Witham Marina was  wrecked  by these  Winter Time Lake Flushings for many years.  The FINANCIAL DAMAGES CAUSED by the  State’s  Actions  financially RUINED My Parents …….  Mother and  Dad’s  Marina was  FORCED INTO  and  CAUSED to be  Massively  Financially Distressed by the  Intentional  Winter Ice Sheet  Lowerings.     MY FATHER was   Arrested, Roughed Up and  ” Knocked Out Cold ”  then  DRUG to  a  Jail  Cell for  2  1/2 Hours on  Jan 6th 1970 …….  As  a  Direct  Consequence of  the  LAKE  FLUSHINGS  engaged in by  New  York  State.
The State’s  STONEWALLING  and  REFUSAL to cooperate in  FOILS,  My Being Attacked , Assaulted  and  My Parent’s  DOSSIERS  being  torn from My Hands at  EVCON’S  Wolf  Road Offices …….  The  State Targetted My Family and because of  Their  ICE  SHEET  LOWERINGS …….  Destroyed My Parents ……. Who Lost  Everything.
FOIL /  FOIA  I want the  Conviction or  Innocense  Records  and  Prosecution Files  regarding  My Father being  ATTACKED  and  Jailed  on Jan 6th 1970   between  11:30  am  and  2:20 pm.
FOIL /  FOIA  I want the  historical records relevant which appertain to  Conservation Commission /  EVCON and  DEC  engaging in  INVESTIGATIONS of  Property Owners /  Land  Owners  for  Land  Acquisition Purposes from 1965  to  the  current date.   I WANT  all DOSSIERS  and  Land  Transactional  Papers  between   Judge  Richard Bartlett,  Robert Stewart and  the  Harris  Bay Development  Corporation.  The  AFORE SAID  were allowed to  BID and Take possession of  what The State of  New York Destroyed  in what will be  revealed as a  HIGHLY  ILLEGAL  MANNER  associated  with the  DOSSIERS  and  TARGETING of  My Parents.    BUT FOR  the  Winter Ice Sheet Lowerings …….   My Parents financial status would  NOT  have been  DESTROYED.
The  Records on  Lake Flushings  to  reduce  SEWAGE LEACHATE  and to COMPENSATE for a  Wholly Inadequate  Spillway  and  Release  Capacity of  the  FAULTY and POORLY  ENGINEERED  Dam “A”  are as well requested.   US  Army Corp of  Engineers,  the  US  Supreme Court, New York’s  Attorney Generals,  Charles  Tuttle,  Warren County,  Lake  George  Association,  NYS  Conservation Commission  and  the  Courts of  New York State …….  With the  Lake George  Mirror,  Adirondacks  Almanac,   Albany Times. Union,  New York Times,  Glens Falls Post Star and a  multitude of  Villages and  Towns  are  ALL  Witness  to  the  MILL POND  OPERATIONS on  Lake  George and the  LaChute  River and  Lake  Champlain  (  Vermont and International  Paper’s  Testimonies  and  Witnesses )
Kate Hogan and  Amy  Bartlett,   Ellen  Apperson Brown,  Union College,  the Town of  Queensbury,  Gerald  Solomon,  John Salvador of the  Dunhams Bay Lodge and  Boat House, Dock and Shooreline  OWNERS in  Huge Numbers  are  all  MATERIAL  WITNESSES ….. such as  the  Lake  Frank  Leonbruno   LG  Park  Commission  Ranger for more  than 40  Years.   The  WINTER TIME  Lake  Flushings are  NOW  a  well  known  HISTORICAL  FACT.
FOIL /  FOIA ……  Lake  George  is  FLUSHED  during the  Winters  and  the  Lake  has  been  FLUSHED for  many decades.   The  Dams over the  Years have  ARTIFICIALLY  Flooded  Lake  George  Basin ……  RAISING  the  Water  Level  for  the  Steam Ships  and  Boats of  Lake  George for  many decades.   The  FLUSHING  OPERATIONS  records /  the  Winter Time  Lake  Lowering  Records  are  herein  requested from the  State of  New  York and  Warren County,  Towns or  Queensbury, Lake George, Bolton Landing and Ticonderoga’s  Records  especially.
In  closing  Anita and  Clifford  Witham and  Family  were  FINANCIALLY  DESTROYED  and  VASTLY  DAMAGED as  a Direct and  Proximate  result of  the  Sewage Leachate  Flushings  and  the  Winter Time Ice  Sheet Lowerings  ebgaged in  by  NEW YORK  STATE.   Anyone Who fails to honor  My  requests  for  PUBLIC  RECORDS regarding the afore mentioned  ONGOING  NUISANCE  and  ONGOING   Custom.  Policy  and  Practice will  be  EXPOSED  and  Held  Lawfully  Accountable.
I am certain the  Warren  County  and  New  York  State  Courts,  Police and  Law Enforcement  Agencies  understand ……..   Dropping  the  Lake  George  Ice  Sheet every  Year has been  going on for  a  very long time.   NYS  DEC the  Towns  and  LG  Park  Commission’s  records  which appertain to  the  ANNUAL  Taxes  and  Dock  Repair, Boat House Repair,  Bulhead  Repair  and  the  Government’s  OWN  Expenses  which reflect  PAYMENTS  for  ICE  SHEET  DAMAGE  to  Lake  Front Appurtenances  are WELL KNOWN  to  the  Warren  County  Supervisors,  Queensbury Officials and  certainly  State Rep  Betty  Little and  Dan  Stec …… and certainly including  Judge  Richard Bartlett  and  Robert Stewart.    Kate  Hogan  and  Amy  Bartlett I am  positive  understand  …….  What was  done  to  Anita  and  Clifford  Witham and  Our Family  was  VERY  WRONG  and  VERY  UNLAWFUL.
The  Warren County Sherriff’s  Office  is  very well aware of  the  VERACITY of  the  above  information, complaint and  demand  for  State and Public  Records.
Thank  You  Major  LaFarr  and  Sherriff  Bud  York
Judson Witham
Son of  the  Swamp Fox
Clifford and Anita Witham’s  Estate
Thank You

The Poisoning of Lake Champlain ….. 800 TONS Daily for …

LISTEN TO THE US SUPREME COURT CASE regarding the GIANT SLUDGE / SEWAGE Mess in … La Chute River). Notice the … La Chute River that manufactured paper



Dee  and  Coy

SEE  HERE FOR SOME  TRUE  Glens Fall’s  Area  History

The Last of the Mohicans, Cooper’s Historical Inventions, and his Cave

James Austin Holden
(University of the State of New York)*
Paper presented at the Eighteenth Annual Meeting of the New York State Historical Association, October 3-5, 1916, Cooperstown, New York.
Published in Proceedings of the New York State Historical Association, Vol. XVI (1917), pp. 212-255.


The  Magical Fantastic  Dancing Surveys of  Queensbury and Warren County ……  The  REAL  HISTORY

Documentary History of New York

This map, I am informed by Peter Nelson, head of the manuscripts section of the State Library, was preserved in a damaged condition, but tbe part saved is complete as to the New York section of it. Another copy of the map is to be found in the Congressional Library collection of geographical atlases in that compiled by Sir R. Dudley, 1646-47. See Congressional Library list of 1909, no. [100].

The map which Doctor Holden supposed had supplied Cooper with his name for Lake George, was at the time believed to be one of the oldest maps of the province extant. It was engraved by Lucini, an Italian, and before the fire of 1911 was in the map collection of the New York State Library.19 It shows the “Horicans” at latitude 42 and inland from “the gulf of Plymouth.”20 Doctor O’Callaghan believed this map, though undated, to have been engraved about 1631.21 More modern authorities, however, would place its construction around 1639 or 1635,22 or perhaps even a little later.

There were other old maps of the New England and New Netherland regions which might have been available for Cooper’s use, but even today some of these are scarce and rare, except in reproductions, so that their accessibility in 1826 is extremely doubtful.

Among them was Nicholas J. Visscher’s map of the New Netherlands, published in 1655, which shows the “Horicans” located somewhere near Buzzards bay, not far from latitude 41 in southeastern Massachusetts, the “Moricans” near the mouth of the Fresh river, and the “Horikans” established toward the upper reaches of the Fresh (Versche), now called the Connecticut, river, between latitude 43 and 44. They, with the river, are placed, however, to the westward of Lake Irocosia, or Champlain, on the map instead of the eastward, as they should have been.

Here is an embarrassment of riches, where we have “Horicans” and “Horikans,” to say nothing of “Moricans,” to choose from,23 each one located many miles away from the others.

Next we have Adriaen vander Donck’s map of the New Netherlands, published in 1656,24 which shows a tribe called Horikans on the upper reaches of the Versche (Fresh) river (the Connecticut) about opposite “Fort Orange” (Albany) and “Colonye.”

It seems strange that vander Donck did not describe the various nations named on his map, as he has given us a very good pen picture of the New Netherlands in his “Representation” of 1650, with a description of the “Fresh river.”25

Miss Cooper, in her introduction to the Houghton and Mifflin edition of Cooper of 1896, has tried to show that the Dutch writer, DeLaet, places the tribe of the Horicans near Lake George. I do not read the passage in the same way, nor do I agree with her conclusions.

De Laet says, in his New World, in chapter 8: “Next on the same south coast, succeeds a river named by our countrymen Fresh River [the Connecticut]…at the distance of fifteen leagues…nation is called Sequins. From this place the river stretches ten leagues, mostly in a northerly direction, but is very crooked;…the natives there…are called Nawaas. This place is situated in latitude 41º 48′. The river is not navigable with yachts for more than two leagues farther, as it is very shallow and has a rocky bottom. Within the land dwells another nation of savages who are called Horikans; they descend the river in canoes made of bark.” That is the present Connecticut river, not the Hudson.

Since preparing the foregoing the writer has been fortunate to find26 in the New York State Library a copy of the rare 1630 edition of DeLaet’s “Beschryvinge van west Indien.”27 In this the original passage runs: “Binnen in het landt woondt een ander natie van Wilden welck sy noemen Horikans, die dese rivier af komen met canoen van basten ghemaeckt.” This, A. J. F. van-Laer, New York State Archivist, has translated as follows: “In the interior of the country dwells another tribe of Indians whom they call Horikans, who come down the river in canoes made of bark.” This it will be noted closely corresponds with the rendering given in Jameson, it being kept in mind the river in question is the Connecticut of today.

In this old Elzevir edition are two rather interesting maps of collateral interest, on one of which,28 showing about latitude 45-46, are two unnamed bodies of water similar in shape to Lakes Champlain and George. Beyond these are two other bodies somewhat similarly joined together, one marked “Grand lac,” the other “lac des Yroquois,” On the other map, however, between latitude 43 and 46, are two bodies of water joined together to form “Lac de Champlain” and {“}Yroquoys,”29 which more nearly resemble in location and shape those we are familiar with.

It is plain from an examination of DeLaet’s description, therefore, that by no possibility of translation can the Horikans (with a “k”) be transferred except by force to the Lake George region30 from the Fresh or Connecticut River, down which “they descend in bark canoes.”

After describing the “Fresh” river, DeLaet gives a description of the “Great river” (the Hudson), as far as “Fort Orange” (Albany). He mentions the Mackwaes (Mohawks), the enemies of the Mohicans, but in no way describes the Horicans, as being located in this section, and certainly not in the vicinity of Lake George as Miss Cooper intimates.31 Had they been there, DeLaet would undoubtedly have mentioned them, as they would have been the natural enemies of the Iroquois, or Mohawks.32

The English publisher, John Ogilby, shows the “Horikans” on the upper reaches of the Versche river on his map “Nova Belgii Tabula,” 1670, in his folio atlas of America, but it is evidently copied from the earlier Visscher map, showing the same inaccurate placing of Lake Irocosia to the east of the Connecticut instead of the west and about opposite the latitude of “New Albany” and “Colonye” on the Hudson.33

In Louis Hennepin’s work, “A New Discovery of a Vast Country in America,” in the map at the beginning of the book, is shown what purports to be the region now known as northern New York. The map is neither accurate nor plainly indicated, but near the headwaters of the Hudson and Lake George and Champlain appears the name “Horican.” The query is: Did Cooper refer to this map or some of the others mentioned? Hennepin does not appear ever to have seen Lake Champlain or Lake George, his travels being in the western part of the State, in Ohio, the farther west and the south, and his information touching eastern New York was largely derived from others. His knowledge was second hand, although his map may be good enough for a novelist’s purposes. As a geographer, Hennepin has been rather savagely attacked by historians, and his text assailed as to its accuracy.34

On the subject of the Mahikans, Dr. W. M. Beauchamp has said: “The Mahikans were the most northern nation of the Algonquin family in New York, occupying both banks of the Hudson and for some distance west along its upper waters. Saratoga was once in their territory. They claimed the land for two days’ journey west of Albany and farther south their claim was good. Their southern limits were below the Catskills, and some place them still farther south. South of these were several small nations of this family, whose names and locations are somewhat confused.”35 It will be noted that Doctor Beauchamp, in assigning to the Mahikans an occupation so northerly, nowhere designates them as Horicans.

In considering this matter too, it must be remembered that the original inhabitants of the Lake George region were called “Adirondacks,” or tree-eaters. An old Jesuit Relation says in describing this region: “We find here also the Adirondacks, that is to say, eaters of trees. This name has been given them by the Iroquois in ridicule for their fasting while on the chase (hunting). It has been changed more slowly into that of Algonquins.”36 In neither Father Jogues Narrative nor any of the Jesuit Relations so far as examined does the name of “Horican” appear as a tribe, location or name in the Adirondack wilderness.

John Gilmary Shea has a plausible version of the name. In speaking of Lake George he says: “This is now called Lake George, after one of the worthy monarchs of the name. Some old map had Horicon for Hirocoi, and the misprint has been metamorphosed into a name for the lake….”37

Evidently Francis Parkman agreed somewhat with Shea, for in a footnote he says: “Lake George, according to Jogues, was called by the Mohawks Andiatarocte, or ‘Place where the Lake closes.’ Andiataraque is found on a map of Sanson. Spafford, ‘Gazetteer of New York,’ article ‘Lake George,’ says that it was called Canideri-oit, or ‘Tail of the Lake.’ Father Martin, in his notes on Bressani, prefixes to this name that of ‘Horicon,’ but gives no original authority. I have seen an old Latin map on which the name ‘Horiconi’ is set down as belonging to a neighboring tribe. This seems to be only a misprint for ‘Horicoui,’ that is ‘Irocoui,’ or ‘Iroquois.’ In an old English map, prefixed to the rare tract, A Treatise of New England, the ‘Lake of Hierocoyes’ is laid down. The name ‘Horicon,’ as used by Cooper in his ‘Last of the Mohicans,’ seems to have no sufficient historical foundation. In 1646, the lake, as we shall see, was named ‘Lac St. Sacrement.’”38

The name “Horican” disappears, so far as the writer has been able to discover, from the English maps of the eighteenth century, thereby leading to the supposition that the tribe was either amalgamated or absorbed by neighboring tribes, or had been conquered and made tributary in the numerous petty Indian wars in the latter part of the seventeenth and earlier part of the eighteenth centuries. In his earlier work, “The Indian Tribes of Hudson’s River,” E. M. Ruttenber places the Horicans at the headwaters of the Hudson. He, however, changed his views in regard to the tribe considerably when he prepared his “Indian Geographical Names,” published by this association in 1906.39 at this time he wrote: Horikans was written by DeLaet, in 1625, as the name of an Indian tribe living at the headwaters of the Connecticut. On an ancient map Horicans is written in lat. 41, east of the Narragansetts on the coast of New England. In the same latitude Moricans is written west of the Connecticut, and Horikans on the upper Connecticut in latitude 42. Morhicans is the form on Carte Figurative of 1614-16. and Mahicans by the Dutch on the Hudson. The several forms indicate that the tribe was the Moricans or Mourigans of the French, the Maikans or Mahikans of the Dutch and the Mohegans of the English. It is certain that that tribe held the headwaters of the Connecticut as well as of the Hudson. The novelist, Cooper, gave life to DeLaet’s orthography in his ‘Last of the Mohegans.’”

In fact, in an old map upon which the Queen Ann patent of the Kayaderosseras is based in 1708, what is now Hudson Falls is marked as “3 Falls” and Glens Falls as “4th Falls.”


17. From Cooper’s The Last of the Mohicans, any late edition. Cooper refers here to the “Les Horicans. No map which I have yet seen, or which has been described by others, has this wording of the name. In fact a recent letter from the map division of the Llbrary of Congress says: In answer to the letter…concerning a map, oontaining the name Les Horicans as applied to the Mohlcans, I would say that the name “Horicans” or “Horikans~” oocurs on many early maps but I am unable to find one on which. “Les Horicans” appears…. De Laet’s map gives “Mahicans” with “Les Horikans” in the French edition, 1640. (Memorandum, P. Lee Phillips, chief, division of maps, Library ot Congress, November 6, 1917.) It seems so improbable that Cooper ever saw DeLaet’s Flrench edition, however, I am iforced to believe he made here a slip of memory~ or one of the pen, as he specifies a map in his preface, while DeLaet’s map does not contain the word “Horicans” at all. Again even in the DeLaet text the word is spelled with a “k” which Cooper does not use.

18. Beauchamp.

19. This map, I am informed by Peter Nelson, head of the manuscripts section of the State Library, was preserved in a damaged condition, but tbe part saved is complete as to the New York section of it. Another copy of the map is to be found in the Congressional Library collection of geographical atlases in that compiled by Sir R. Dudley, 1646-47. See Congressional Library list of 1909, no. [100].

20. E. B. O’Callaghan, The Documentary History of the State of New Yark. Albany, 1849, 8vo. ed., 1850, 4to ed., map to face title page.

21. Id. note to 4to edition.

22. P. L. Phillips, chief, division of maps and charts, Library of Congress, List of Geographical Atlases, v. 1, Washington, 1909, p. 214.

23. See map reproduced in colors In E. M. Avery’s History of United States, Cleveland [1905], v. 2, p. 246-47, insert; also id, in John Fiske’s Dutch and Quaker Colonies in America, Houghton, Mifflin and Co., ed. 1903, op· p· 203-4, insert.

24. Reproductions of this map are shown in Collections of New York Historical Society, 2d series. New York, 1841, op. title page; in Justin Winsor’s Narrative and Critical History of America, Boston and New York [1884], v. 4, p. 439; in Proceedings of the New York State Historical Association, v. 6, 1906, op. title page, Indian Geographical Names, by E. M. Ruttenber; and in J. F. Jameson’s Narratives of New Netherland, 1609-1664, Scribners Sons, New York, 1909, op. p. 294. Other reproductions of this map are listed in Winsor, v. 4, P· 438, note 4.

25. Collections of the New York Historical Society, 2d series, New York, 1841, v. 1. p. 125-243. Jameson’s Narratives of New Netherland, p. 295-354.

26. Through the kindness of Peter Nelson in charge of the manuscripts section of the State Library.

27. Leyden, 1630, Elzevirs’ edition.

28. Op. p. 88.

29. See map marked “Nova Francia et Regiones Adiacenti.”

30. Hedges, United States Government ethnologist, is in error in his conclusions that the Horicons were “a people living on the head waters of the Hudson,” nor do his quoted authorities uphold his conclusions. Had he said head waters of the Connecticut, he might have been nearer the fact. Handbook of American Indians, North of Mexico, Washington, 1907, part 1. p. 569.

31. Miss Cooper’s introduction, P· XLIII.

32. See extracts from DeLaet’s New World, in Jameson’s Narratives of New Netherland, 1625, 1630, 1633, 1640-1, p. 43, 47.

33. Wlnsor’s Narrative and Critical History, v. 4, p. 392. Note “from Ogilby’s America p. 169.” A copy of this rare London

Atlas of 1671 is in the State Library at Albany and shows the whole of this map instead of the part of it given in Winsor. From from this it is clearly taken from the earlier Visscher map.

List of  Maps  and  Super  Illustrations / Books

Images for Nova Francia et Regiones Adiacenti

Visscher Map New Netherlands

Adriaen vander Donck’s map of the New Netherlands

Lucini  map of the New Netherlands

DeLaet’s   Beschryvinge van west Indien

Doctor Holden states that the lake had four names, namely, An-di-a-ta-roc-te,13 given it by the Iroquois according to Father Jogues, and meaning “the place where the lake contracts,” Can-i-de-ri-oit,14 “the tail of the lake” (Champlain), supposed to be a Mohawk term, Lac du St. Sacrement, “lake of the blessed sacrement,” {sic} given it by Father Jogues in 1646,15 and Lake George, in honor of the reigning monarch, bestowed by Major General William Johnson in 1755, in honor of his king.16

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