More and More and MoreLand Corruption New York

The Crime Spree of  Stealing Land in NEW York NEW England has been an ONGOING  Racketeering Crime  for the last 500+ Years

THE  EMPIRE IS  NOT WEARING CLOTHES

Stealing Land In NEW York  NEW  England is as  OLD AS THE HILLS

LEAVE IT TO THE  MINING BARONS TO FIGURE OUT HOW TO MONETIZE  THE  PARKS TO BUILD THEIR OWN FORTUNES

SAND SILT AND SEDIMENT HARVESTING IN THE ADIRONDACKS    …   Gee Golly Whiz Imagine all those Sediment Basin and Sediment Traps and SAND BARS being Harvested by the LAKE GEORGE CABAL …….. David  Decker and the  Crew  http://www.gsldeepening.com/

IT’s   Wake Up Time in the  Adirondack  Mountains

For  Mother and Dad

mother-and-dad

The  State of New York  PURPOSELY  Destroying My Parents Marina ……  EXPOSED ……  The Annual Ice Sheet Games PROVEN

Clifford and  Bradford and the  Witham Family

The  Swamp Fox and Dee & Coy

Beautiful_red_fox

The Best Juke Box  and Pinball Corner in Home Town America

cunningham

For  Me it all  began  here at Goodman St and Cunningham Ave in HOMETOWN AMERICA …..  Glens  Falls.  From here it was to the  QUEEN OF  AMERICA’s Lakes  ” Andia’Ta”Roc’Te  at  Middle Bay in the  ANCIENT  Native American Fishing, Trapping, Foraging, Hunting and Encampment Grounds between  French Mountain and the Sugar Loaf Mountains by  THE HAPPY FAMILY ISLANDS

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Recently on Lake George there was a  Tragic  Accident and as a result a precious You Girl in that accident lost Her life.  Following the Accident it is said that the Party operating one of the Boats engaged in actions to conceal the Boat and Themselves from being identified as a Party to this extremely unfortunate Accident.   Concealing and Hiding from the  Scene is a central element to Warren County, The State of  New York’s prosecution in this very very sad event that happened on Lake George.   Our World lost an incredible Young Girl and Her Family lost so much more.  There are no words to express how deeply this Accident has effected  ALL the  Family members involved and the Young People Who are in this story as well.  ALL  THE  WAY  AROUND a very sad moment in Lake George History.

The research and investigation associated with this series of events reveal something remarkably different.   The  Operations of  Flushing vast Industrial Wastes and Billions of  Gallons of  Poisoned and Contaminated Materials and Water …… was done INTENTIONALLY,  By  design, on purpose or  with SCINTER.   Hiding the wastes, secreting the Poisoning of  Two New York Lakes and concealing the liability for the destruction of  Marinas, Boat Houses, Islands, Shoreline and costing untold BILLIONS in damages.   I write as the last surviving Son of  Anita and Clifford  Witham …… the founders and original developers of the SWAMP /  East Shores Harbour Marina at Harris Bay on Lake George.  The Lake Ice Manipulations by The State of New York and the International Paper with Systems Properties and others with FINANCIAL INTERESTS in mind did this destruction  INTENTIONALLY.   Their Efforts to  Hide It and Conceal It as well as avoid Financial Responsibility are  herewith  EXPOSED.

This is what the  History Shows ……  Son of  the  Swamp Fox 

SEE  DRAWDOWN  LAKE GEORGE –  EXPOSE’  The Pinhole Project  The Artificial Flooding of  the  MILL POND

millpond

The  Biggest  Pile  O  Crap  Imaginable

Wholly Inadequate …… Fraudulent Concealment

The  Racket has always been  the  BIG  Money Campaign Financiers behind  the  MILLS …….  The  Glens  Falls  Banksters.   The very same behind the  Glens Falls Insurance Agency and  the  Lake George Steam Ship  Company   OH  YEAH  and  the  Lake  George Association

The  EXTRACTION Economy and the  Big Money Contributors

The Delanos, Coolidges, Baldwins, Weeds, Wings, Rockefellers, Rothschilds, Hochschilds, Astors and the Glens Falls  Banksters  with Pinchot, Biltmore Castle Vanderbilts and International Paper  etc etc Et Al  ……  FLUSHING  THE  Pee,  The  Pooh and all the  Forest Products Wastes To.   The BLUE LINE  MAFIA  REVEALLED

Abook

The  Massive  Poisoning of  Lake  Champlain  EXPOSE’  Going WAY  Beyond  Dr.  Irving Langmuir  and  John Apperson  UNION  COLLEGE,  Paul Smith’s  College,  The  Fund for  Lake  George and  the  Darrin Fresh Water Institute  RPI  College and  the  Adirondack  Museum …..  TAKE  NOTICE  ….  The  Lake  George  Association  and  DEC as  well as  Lake  George  Park Commission …..  They are  ALL  Witnesses  with  the  Warren County Sheriff’s  Office,  Washington  and  Essex  County  Sheriffs as  well  EVEN  The  State of  Vermont,  US  Army Corp of Engineers,  US  Geological  Service  and  EPA /  US  Attorney  General  and  US  Supreme Court  and  the  New  York State  Unified Court  System

The Upper  Privilege   DAM  ” A ”   Keeps  Lake  George 8 +  Feet  Higher  than  Natural   (see page  34 )

tcdam

The Upper  Privilege   DAM  ” A ”   Keeps  Lake  George 8 +  Feet  Higher  than  Natural   (see page  34 )

damdrawinga

The  TOILET  FLUSHER

FLUSHING THE POLLUTION  from the La Chute  River and  FLUSHING  the  Pollution and  Sewage / Leachate from Lake George

KEEP   FLUSHING  FLUSHING  ANDY

YES  LAKE  GEORGE HAS  BEEN  FLUSHED FOR  DECADES

leachate

YES and the  US  ARMY  knows  all  about  FLUSHING

eileen.l.williamson@usace.army.mil
Omaha, NE — The annual sediment flushing exercise will be completed at Cherry Creek Reservoir, near Aurora, Colorado on Wednesday, June 1, 2016.

Katie Seefus, water manager in the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers’ Omaha District office, says …. “When the gates are opened, the high velocity of the water leaving the reservoir scours the area immediately upstream of the gates and transports sediment with the flow,” said Seefus.  The sediment flush is required to allow proper operation of the outlet gates.   ( Just Like Lake George and the  Poop Chute River  )

High Water Sinks State Islands 1919  ….. Annual Dock, Boat House Damages ….. see NYS  Conservation Commissioner  George D. Pratt  ……   Gentleman’s Agreement to END all  the  Annual Property Damage

The story unfolds  as  Anita F. Witham and My Dad  Clifford B. Witham II  begin the development of the  PREMEIR MARINA on Andia’Ta’Roc’Te  known to some as  Lac Du  Saint Sacrement

kattskill

You can see the 1960s  United States Geological Survey’s Map of the  Witham Marina  below

Swamp3

Just Before  Mother and  Dad began all Their Work with My Older Brothers and Sisters

georgia

Georgia

Cliff  brad

                                             Clifford  III                                   Bradford Norcross

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Tracy     “ME”    Heather  and  Brooke

AMarina2

The  Greatest Marina on the  Queen of  America’s Lakes

THE  SWAMP at East Shores  Harbour

SEE  The  Poisoning of  Lake George

Beginning  the  Year of  My Birth in 1956 or so …… Mother and  Dad  began Their life’s dream of building Their Marina and Home at Lake George.   For the first few years  They  ENCAMPED like  Swiss  Family Robison  and so many others at Andia’Ta’Roc’Te  as  the  ANCIENT PEOPLE  DID …….   Mother and  Dad  Teepeed It in a  Large  Army Squad Tent and  Deck on the  Hill where  Assembly point begins just West of the Marina and the  Happy  Family Islands.

For  many years at first ….. Things were  really  great and the  Family was as  Happy as  the  Islands in front of the  Marina   THEN IT BEGAN ……..  The  Flushings of the  Winter Ice  Sheet and Lake George’s   Leachate Filled Waters.   The  State of  New York and International Paper Company’s    FLUSHINGS of the  Ice and Snow  Sheet  during the  Winters began to  DESTROY the  Marina Docks and Shoreline.   SEE  The  Poisoning of  Lake Champlain

aabsouluteproof

champlain4

Infectious Pathogens Septic Leachate

 

champlain2

nysappeal

alakedamage

icesheet

It Should Be Noted the Dam is 8 feet to 12  feet  ABOVE the  Natural Stone Ledge Outlet making Lake George  OVER 8 feet deeper and 10 and 12 feet  higher during Rain Conditions and Snow Pack Melt
ALL  DRAINAGE  FROM THE  WHOLE  BASIN  PASSES THROUGH THIS  NARROW UNDERPASS  (   ALEXANDRIA AVE  BRIDGE  )
THE  DAM MAKES LAKE GEORGE  8 – 12  Feet  Deeper
The  Dam during a  PFM  ( Probable Flood Moment )  Raises Lake George  12  Feet  and  More
The Dam is a  High Risk Dam and 46% of  Proper Capacity
High Risk Dam   only 46%  Capacity in  PFM  ( 100 or  200 Year Floods )
Original Stone Dam  8 to 12 Feet  Higher
See  Alexandria Street  Bridge  Acts to  Dam the Lake  WORSE
Dam  “A”   Causes Lake George to be Greatly  Flooded   “THE MILL POND “

The  extremely UGLY  Story  of  the  Leachate Polluted  Lake  began to be  revealed  The  Annual  Flushings    DRAINING  THE  BATH TUB   Through the  Pin Hole  began to be  more and more and more apparent after My Parents  Were  Cheated and Swindled for  EVERYTHING …. See  Life in the  SOUTH PARK …  You Will  Comply

glens-falls-messenger-april-9-1829

The  VERY  VERY    GREENE  Story has  been  unfolding ever since 1829  that is  188  Years  of  FLUSHING  Lake  Andia’Ta’Roc’Te

achamplain2

VERY  VERY  GREENE  Basil  Segoss Eric  Schneiderman  and  Governor  Cuomo  ……   Dan Stec …….  Betty  Little  and  Gerald Solomon  know  very  well  as  does  the  LAKE  GEORGE  ASSOCIATION …….  New  York  Conservation Commission and of  course  the  Adirondack 46ers  and  the  Fund for  Lake  George.

asludge_pipe

1,300,000,000  Pieces of Admissible Evidence https://www.facebook.com/isacc.witham/videos/701819773318795/ Listen to the United States Supreme Court Discuss the Huge Pile of Toxic Slop ……..
https://www.oyez.org/cases/1971/50%20ORIG

vermont

STAY  TUNED

Letter to the  Warren County District  Attorney,  Amy Bartlett  Warren County Attorney,  Warren County Board of  Supervisors  and  the  State Of New York.

Sent to  Major  James  A.  LaFarr   Warren County’s  Sheriff’s  Office

SwampFox <notjuris@gmail.com>

Attachments4:32 AM (2 hours ago)

to Kristy, wcso, James, Margaret, Marisa, Keith, FOIL
 I am reviewing the  Jan 6 1970  Arrest  and  the  Jan 6th 1970  release of My Father  Clifford B.  Witham  Jr from the  Warren County Jail.    He was arrested at  11:30 am  and Released at  1:50  pm  on a  Vague and Ambiguous Charge  of  Harassment.    Town Justice De Vries seems to be the Committing  Judge ?    The  Claimed Violation of  Penal Code 240.25  is noted as the  offense.
This  FOIL  seeks  the  Adjudication Records,  Appearance Date,  Bond Set,  and the  Information employed to Arrest and then Commit to Jail My Father.    The   State’s   BRADY  MATERIALS  and  the  STATE’s  Prosecution  files  with  ALL  evidence that was  relied upon  to make this  Arrest  and  Commit  My Father to Jail  are  requested.
As a note to the  Warren County Sheriff.   Governor  Andrew  Cuomo’s  ANTI CORRUPTION  Task Force  seeking information and intelligence on Corruption in New York Government as well as  Assistant US  Attorney  Phreet Baraha’s  Corruption of  New York Government have been requested to examine Why  My Father  and  Mother’s   Marina was  numerous times  destroyed  during the  DRAINING of  the  BATH TUB  being conducted by New York State  Dam Operators  during Winter Ice and Snow Cover  using Dam “A”  at the LaChute River.   The  ANNUAL  ICE  DAMAGE on Lake George has hundreds of times been traced to the  WINTER TIME  Ice  Lowerings  and  Raisings  as  complained about  many thousands of times  by  New York’s  Attorney  Generals,   Conservation Commission  Directors  and to which  Warren County Supervisors  and  hundreds of other Material Witnesses  have  recorded and noted and complained of  for  DECADES.    The  Draining of  the  Bath Tub  is  described  by  Lake  George  Park Commissioner   David  Wick  as well as  DEC  Lake George  Park Ranger    Frank  Leonbruno  and  many other  State, County, Town, Vermont and  Federal Agents.
I know on Jan 6th 1970,  My Grandmother Della Witham was at the  Foreclosure Sale of My Parent’s  Home and  Marina seeking to  Redeem or  Bid on the  Property.  I know  She had significant financial resources to  PAY for any Bid  She would have made.   I know that  My Parents  Home and Marina  were financial  devastated  by the   ICE  and  SNOW  Sheet  Damages  so many  New York State  Authorities  have  recorded since  1821 and 1847  and especially  during the  1920 an 1940s  and  written about by  DEC  Lake  George  Park Ranger    Frank Leonbruno.   The Lake George  Park Commission  and  the  Lake  George  Association are very well aware of  these  FACTS as is  the  NYS  Attorney General’s  Office.
In closing I ask that the  County Attorney,  District Attorney  release the  BRADY  MATERIALS  and  the  Information and  Prosecution Evidence  as  well as  the  Adjudication Records of  the  Arrest and Commitment of My Father  for the AMBIGUOUS CHARGE of  HARASMENT.  (  Class B Misdemeanor  240.25 )
Thank You Major  LaFarr  …
Your  Oath Obviously is  Important to You,
Thank You.
The  Pen is  Mightier than the  Sword  and  the  Internet  Mightier than the  Pen   ………   SON OF  SWAMP  FOX
SEE

DRAWDOWN LAKE  GEORGE

Revealing the  Annual  Massive  Dock and  Boat House  Damage  Caused on Lake  George for many  DECADES …. The  Massively INADEQUATE  New York State  Spillway  46% of  the  PFM  US  Army Corp of  Engineers  and  Basil  Seggos  Governor  Andrew  Cuomo  DEC   LGPC  all  witnesses  with  THE  RPI,  Fund  for  Lake  George,  State of  Vermont  and  Lake  George  Association

Judge  Richard  Bartlett and  George  Stewart and  Robert  Stewart with the  New York State  Conservation Commission  were  ALL in on the   Lake  Flushings  and  Drawdowns ……

The Lake  George Park Commission   KNOWS  TOM WEST (Fund for Lake George and  Mike Stafford  Esq.  Lake  George  even the  Lake  George  Mirror,  Albany Times  Union and New York Times  The  Darned  POST  STAR  KNOWS

Facts  are  STUBBORN  THINGS

EVEN  THE  SURVEY  LINES  DANCE  ALL  AROUND

CK Out the North and South SHUFFLE of the Lot Lines of 13, 12, 11, and 14 AMAZING Dancing Survey Lines. NOTE Clifford Witham also discovered all the FRAUD in the CHANGED French Mountain Surveys as well. LIKELY One of the reasons My Parents were so VISCOUSLY TARGETTED. Magic Fantastic Queensbury and Warren County Moving Survey Corners ……. Simply AMAZING stuff.

warrencountyqueensbury

YES  THE  MAGICAL  DANCING  SURVEY  LINES OF  WARREN COUNTY

queensbury4

queensburymap2

SEE  HERE FOR SOME  TRUE  Glens Fall’s  Area  History

The Last of the Mohicans, Cooper’s Historical Inventions, and his Cave

James Austin Holden
(University of the State of New York)*
Paper presented at the Eighteenth Annual Meeting of the New York State Historical Association, October 3-5, 1916, Cooperstown, New York.
Published in Proceedings of the New York State Historical Association, Vol. XVI (1917), pp. 212-255.

An Adirondack Chronology No 73 – scribd.com

Jan 12, 2017 · Testing the Legal Waters (Shingle Shanty Brook to Mud PondGeorge. 1999. Lake Champlain … (a companion work to an exhibit of John Apperson

Meanwhile  Rothschilds, Hochschilds, Rockefellers and  the  Globalists  USING   NYCO  and  Barton Mining and others  are  RAPING  the  US  (  Pump And Dump )  for  the  NATURAL  RESOURCES  ……  See  all  of  Zahniser’s   Buddies  …….    Communism and CONservation   Yes Indeed  ABSOLUTELY  ……   The First Earth Day Expose’

ANewState

https://theadirondacksconspiracy.wordpress.com/2015/07/17/the-adirondacks-conspiracy/

Communists  and  Fabian Socialism

Here’s  Your  Sign

Good Ol  Zahniser  and  Bob  Marshall

1a

The ANCIENT ART of  imposing FORESTS Down Your Throats

The  SOCIALISTS  OF  THE  BLUE  LINE

temporary-commission-1970

Building the  BRITISH  SOCIALIST  FORESTS OF NEW YORK

Hoarding Vast Natural Resources for the  Wealthy Oligarchs

YUP  I  said  the  COMMUNISTS  of  DEC

Bob Marshall (wilderness activist) – Wikipedia

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Marshall_(46er)

Bob Marshall (wilderness activist) … and socialist organizations. In … the widows of two prominent members of The Wilderness Society. Written by Howard Zahniser

AConservationMap

Roosevelts  and  Pinchots and Hochschilds  Rockefellers

The  SOCIALISTS OF THE  ENVIRONMENTAL MOVEMENT

The  Great  Big  LAND  GRABBING  SCAMS

AFamily

SOCIALISM  AND  THE  BLUE  LINES  oh and of course  The

National Park System

The  WILDERNESS  SOCIETY

Complete with  ATTACK  DOGS

deccannine

BIG  BUCKS  AND  LOTS  OF  NATURAL RESOURCES FOR THE  FASCIST  CORPORATIONS WALL STREET AND THE  BANKSTERS

Protecting The Natural Resources for the  FEW

How Green Became the Color of Money

Munich in the Big Woods.

The Wilderness Society was founded in 1930 by three early heroes of the environmental movement: Aldo Leopold, Benton McKaye and Robert Marshall. MacKaye and Marshall were both socialists, who believed that corporate-owned forest land should be seized by the federal government. Leopold was the father of modern forest ecology and author of Sand County Almanac, the classic text on “land ethics.”

The modern Wilderness Society, with its cautious political approach and $20 million a year budget, bears little resemblance to the lean and radical organization started by Leopold and Marshall. The Society’s board of directors is culled from the elite ranks of corporate America and the social register. In the 1990s, the board included John Bierworth (former CEO of defense contractor Grumman International), David Bonderman (CEO of Continental Airlines), oil heiress Caroline Getty, Christopher Elliman (Rockefeller heir) and Gilman Ordway (heir to the 3M chemical forture).

The Wilderness Society’s staff spends most of its time raising and reinvesting money. Indeed, during the Clinton era the membership development, operations and financial staff of the Wilderness Society was three times the size of its conservation staff. Even so, in 1993 the Society shoveled out nearly $2 million in contracts to outside telemarketing companies to do additional fundraising.

An analysis of the Wilderness Society’s stock portfolio in the mid-1990s revealed an unsavory map of strange investments for a putative environmental organization. For example, the country’s self-proclaimed defender of America’s last pristine lands owned thousands of shares of stock in Caterpillar, Cummins Engines, John Deere, Eaton and Ryder, corporations that build bulldozers, logging trucks, diesel engines and other heavy equipment used to invade roadless areas. They also held investments in defense and energy companies, such as AMP Inc, Baltimore Gas & Electric, Consolidated Edison, FPL Group, General Electric and Loral.

The Society occupies sumptuous quarters on 17th Street in DC. The halls, dressed in original prints by Ansel Adams, amplify the man-made connections between nature’s grandeur and plutocrats’ splendor. According to its annual report, starting in 1997 the Wilderness Society began paying $6 million a year for the DC Headquarters, nearly a third of its annual budget.

Behind such Beltway greens as the Wilderness Society now stand the real power brokers of environmental politics: the shadowy syndicate of foundations known as the Environmental Grantmakers Association, which annually channels more than a half billion into the coffers of the nation’s major green groups. Oil is the color of money here.

The Pew Charitable Trusts entered the world of environmental funding cautiously. In 1994, Pew staffer Tom Wathen rejected a modest grant proposal by a broad swath of greens saying, “I like it, but my board’s very conservatie and they’d never approve it.” The proposal was for a campaign to end the logging of native forests on public lands.

Yet the big foundations no longer function simply as dispensers of cash to green groups. At the Environmental Grantmakers Association’s 1992 retreat on an island in Puget Sound the Association’s president at the time, Donald Ross, boasted that the foundations were quite capable of running their own environmental campaigns. “I think funders have a major role to play,” Ross said. “And I know there are resentments in the [environmental] community towards funders doing that. Well, too bad. We’re players and they’re players.”

Sharing Ross’s vision of a more interventionist role for foundations was Pete Meyers, who ran the W. Alton Jones Foundation in the 1990s. In 1991, Ross and Meyers decided to develop a national campaign to protect the ancient forests of the Pacific Northwest. They called their manufactured group Americans for the Ancient Forests and proclaimed that their mission was to pass legislation in congress preserving the last of the old-growth trees.

To oversee their operation, Ross and Meyers picked Bob Chlopak, who ran the elite DC lobbying firm of Cholpak, Leonard, Schechter and Associates. Chlopak’s major clients included General Electric and the Office of the President of Mexico. In the late 1980s, Cholpak served as the executive director of the Democratic Senatorial Campaign, where he forged close ties with many Democratic Party power-brokers, including Al Gore and James Carville.

The Environmental Grantmaker’s Association’s network of foundations seeded American’s for the Ancient Forests with $2 million, some of which was diverted from hungrier and more militant green groups, such as the Native Forest Council and Project Lighthawk. When the money began to roll in Chlopak trilled to an Oregon environmentalist: “This contract has bought me my New Jersey beach house.”

In theory, Chlopak was supposed to defend the forests in the strong language of dollars. Instead he counseled greens against pressing the Clinton administration too hard.  Finally he convinced them not to pursue passage of the very bill for which his organization had been created. Chlopak counseled that the Clinton administration should be given the latitude to develop its own plan for the management of the spotted owl and the Northwest’s old-growth forests, the plan which would become the infamous Option Nine.

When Bruce Babbitt demanded that environmentalists give up their court injunction and permit logging to restart in spotted owl habitat, Chlopak, instead of lobbying the administration to back off, urge the greens to capitulate to the deal. When the dazed greens acceded, Chlopak shut down the offices of Americans for the Ancient Forests. Mission accomplished.

Activists in the Pacific Northwest are only now beginning to appreciate the extent of Chlopak’s betrayal. The truth began to emerge shortly after the recently-elected Republican congress debated legislation purporting to slash $20 billion out of the 1995 budget, the so-called Rescissions Bill. When the legislation finally emerged from the floor of the House, it was loaded like a MIRV warhead with anti-environmental amendments aimed at everything from institutionalizing current livestock grazing practices to lowering drinking water standards to lifting a court injunction against logging on the Tongass National Forest. The most threatening of all of these measures was the Salvage Logging Rider, cooked up by Don Young, Mark Hatfield and Slade Gorton.

The rider promoted the traditional bogus claim of a “forest health crisis” in which millions of acres of public forestland were either burned over, decadent or diseased—a situation which, the legislators argued, could only be cured by increased logging, chainsaw surgery. The Salvage Rider mandated that the Forest Service sell 5 billion board feet of timber (twice the amount sold in 1993). The measure contained sufficiency language that exempted all of those timber sales from compliance with environmental laws, such as the Endangered Species Act, and shielded them from any possible legal challenges brought by environmentalists.

Big timber backed the bill with messianic vigor, while the environmental lobby dubbed it the “logging without laws” bill, confident it would meet with a stern veto from Clinton. After all, the greens reasoned, the Clinton administration had promised  to veto any “sufficiency language riders” affecting Northwest forests. This was a key part of the notorious deal with Chlopak and Babbitt.

When the first version of the Rescissions Bill arrived at the White House, Clinton did veto it. Mainstream greens cheered the president in full-page ads in the New York Times. These accolades were over-loud and premature. In fact, concern for his own pet project, Americorps, which the bill would have gutted, was the real spark for Clinton’s veto.

Within days of the veto, the White House helped draft a new version of the bill which contained both the Americorps funding and the anti-environmental riders. The Clinton-approved version saild through the House, but could have been stopped in the Senate with an objection from a single senator.

Environmentalists had placed their hopes in Senator Patty Murray of Washington state, who had intimated that she might launch a filibuster against the bill. But when the time came Murray was nowhere to be found. It turned out that Clinton had called Murray the night before the scheduled vote and demanded that she drop her challenge. The compliant senator quietly fled town for a leisurely weekend in Seattle.

After the final vote, Mark Hatfield strode to the podium in the well of the Senate chamber, a sly grin on his face: “I would like to read this into the record. It is a letter denoting the Clinton administration’s total support for this bill.” In a final twist of the knife, the letter Hatfield brandished was signed by Clinton’s OMB director Alice Rivlin, a former adviser to the Wilderness Society.

At the signing ceremony, Clinton rationalized his latest betrayal: “Yes, I support this salvage provision. I believe we need to do more salvage logging.”

Nothing could better illustrate the shattered condition of the green lobby. When the most egregious assault yet on American environmental laws came before the Senate, not a single senator could be roused to oppose it. Not one.

A quarter century after the first Earth Day, the corporate counter-attacked launched in the 1970s was nearly complete. As citizens virtuously warehouse their newspapaers, seek redemption in glass bottles and aluminum cans and recycle their direct mail pleas from mainstream environmental groups into properly source-separated containers, they may be too busy acting locally to notice the thoroughly degraded national picture.

To be continued

JEFFREY ST. CLAIR is the author of Been Brown So Long It Looked Like Green to Me: the Politics of Nature and Grand Theft Pentagon. His newest book, Born Under a Bad Sky, is published by AK Press / CounterPunch books. He can be reached at: sitka@comcast.net.

This essay is excerpted from the forthcoming book GreenScare: the New War on Environmentalism by JEFFREY ST. CLAIR and Joshua Frank.

Click here to read Part One.

Click here to read Part Two.

Click here to read Part Three.

Click here to read Part Four.

Click here to read Part Four.

Click here to read Part Five.

Click here to read Part Six.

Click here to read Part Seven.

Click here to read Part Eight.

SEE  HERE FOR SOME  TRUE  Glens Fall’s  Area  History

The Last of the Mohicans, Cooper’s Historical Inventions, and his Cave

James Austin Holden
(University of the State of New York)*
Paper presented at the Eighteenth Annual Meeting of the New York State Historical Association, October 3-5, 1916, Cooperstown, New York.
Published in Proceedings of the New York State Historical Association, Vol. XVI (1917), pp. 212-255.

warrencountyqueensbury

The  Magical Fantastic  Dancing Surveys of  Queensbury and Warren County ……  The  REAL  HISTORY

Documentary History of New York

This map, I am informed by Peter Nelson, head of the manuscripts section of the State Library, was preserved in a damaged condition, but tbe part saved is complete as to the New York section of it. Another copy of the map is to be found in the Congressional Library collection of geographical atlases in that compiled by Sir R. Dudley, 1646-47. See Congressional Library list of 1909, no. [100].

The map which Doctor Holden supposed had supplied Cooper with his name for Lake George, was at the time believed to be one of the oldest maps of the province extant. It was engraved by Lucini, an Italian, and before the fire of 1911 was in the map collection of the New York State Library.19 It shows the “Horicans” at latitude 42 and inland from “the gulf of Plymouth.”20 Doctor O’Callaghan believed this map, though undated, to have been engraved about 1631.21 More modern authorities, however, would place its construction around 1639 or 1635,22 or perhaps even a little later.

There were other old maps of the New England and New Netherland regions which might have been available for Cooper’s use, but even today some of these are scarce and rare, except in reproductions, so that their accessibility in 1826 is extremely doubtful.

Among them was Nicholas J. Visscher’s map of the New Netherlands, published in 1655, which shows the “Horicans” located somewhere near Buzzards bay, not far from latitude 41 in southeastern Massachusetts, the “Moricans” near the mouth of the Fresh river, and the “Horikans” established toward the upper reaches of the Fresh (Versche), now called the Connecticut, river, between latitude 43 and 44. They, with the river, are placed, however, to the westward of Lake Irocosia, or Champlain, on the map instead of the eastward, as they should have been.

Here is an embarrassment of riches, where we have “Horicans” and “Horikans,” to say nothing of “Moricans,” to choose from,23 each one located many miles away from the others.

Next we have Adriaen vander Donck’s map of the New Netherlands, published in 1656,24 which shows a tribe called Horikans on the upper reaches of the Versche (Fresh) river (the Connecticut) about opposite “Fort Orange” (Albany) and “Colonye.”

It seems strange that vander Donck did not describe the various nations named on his map, as he has given us a very good pen picture of the New Netherlands in his “Representation” of 1650, with a description of the “Fresh river.”25

Miss Cooper, in her introduction to the Houghton and Mifflin edition of Cooper of 1896, has tried to show that the Dutch writer, DeLaet, places the tribe of the Horicans near Lake George. I do not read the passage in the same way, nor do I agree with her conclusions.

De Laet says, in his New World, in chapter 8: “Next on the same south coast, succeeds a river named by our countrymen Fresh River [the Connecticut]…at the distance of fifteen leagues…nation is called Sequins. From this place the river stretches ten leagues, mostly in a northerly direction, but is very crooked;…the natives there…are called Nawaas. This place is situated in latitude 41º 48′. The river is not navigable with yachts for more than two leagues farther, as it is very shallow and has a rocky bottom. Within the land dwells another nation of savages who are called Horikans; they descend the river in canoes made of bark.” That is the present Connecticut river, not the Hudson.

Since preparing the foregoing the writer has been fortunate to find26 in the New York State Library a copy of the rare 1630 edition of DeLaet’s “Beschryvinge van west Indien.”27 In this the original passage runs: “Binnen in het landt woondt een ander natie van Wilden welck sy noemen Horikans, die dese rivier af komen met canoen van basten ghemaeckt.” This, A. J. F. van-Laer, New York State Archivist, has translated as follows: “In the interior of the country dwells another tribe of Indians whom they call Horikans, who come down the river in canoes made of bark.” This it will be noted closely corresponds with the rendering given in Jameson, it being kept in mind the river in question is the Connecticut of today.

In this old Elzevir edition are two rather interesting maps of collateral interest, on one of which,28 showing about latitude 45-46, are two unnamed bodies of water similar in shape to Lakes Champlain and George. Beyond these are two other bodies somewhat similarly joined together, one marked “Grand lac,” the other “lac des Yroquois,” On the other map, however, between latitude 43 and 46, are two bodies of water joined together to form “Lac de Champlain” and {“}Yroquoys,”29 which more nearly resemble in location and shape those we are familiar with.

It is plain from an examination of DeLaet’s description, therefore, that by no possibility of translation can the Horikans (with a “k”) be transferred except by force to the Lake George region30 from the Fresh or Connecticut River, down which “they descend in bark canoes.”

After describing the “Fresh” river, DeLaet gives a description of the “Great river” (the Hudson), as far as “Fort Orange” (Albany). He mentions the Mackwaes (Mohawks), the enemies of the Mohicans, but in no way describes the Horicans, as being located in this section, and certainly not in the vicinity of Lake George as Miss Cooper intimates.31 Had they been there, DeLaet would undoubtedly have mentioned them, as they would have been the natural enemies of the Iroquois, or Mohawks.32

The English publisher, John Ogilby, shows the “Horikans” on the upper reaches of the Versche river on his map “Nova Belgii Tabula,” 1670, in his folio atlas of America, but it is evidently copied from the earlier Visscher map, showing the same inaccurate placing of Lake Irocosia to the east of the Connecticut instead of the west and about opposite the latitude of “New Albany” and “Colonye” on the Hudson.33

In Louis Hennepin’s work, “A New Discovery of a Vast Country in America,” in the map at the beginning of the book, is shown what purports to be the region now known as northern New York. The map is neither accurate nor plainly indicated, but near the headwaters of the Hudson and Lake George and Champlain appears the name “Horican.” The query is: Did Cooper refer to this map or some of the others mentioned? Hennepin does not appear ever to have seen Lake Champlain or Lake George, his travels being in the western part of the State, in Ohio, the farther west and the south, and his information touching eastern New York was largely derived from others. His knowledge was second hand, although his map may be good enough for a novelist’s purposes. As a geographer, Hennepin has been rather savagely attacked by historians, and his text assailed as to its accuracy.34

On the subject of the Mahikans, Dr. W. M. Beauchamp has said: “The Mahikans were the most northern nation of the Algonquin family in New York, occupying both banks of the Hudson and for some distance west along its upper waters. Saratoga was once in their territory. They claimed the land for two days’ journey west of Albany and farther south their claim was good. Their southern limits were below the Catskills, and some place them still farther south. South of these were several small nations of this family, whose names and locations are somewhat confused.”35 It will be noted that Doctor Beauchamp, in assigning to the Mahikans an occupation so northerly, nowhere designates them as Horicans.

In considering this matter too, it must be remembered that the original inhabitants of the Lake George region were called “Adirondacks,” or tree-eaters. An old Jesuit Relation says in describing this region: “We find here also the Adirondacks, that is to say, eaters of trees. This name has been given them by the Iroquois in ridicule for their fasting while on the chase (hunting). It has been changed more slowly into that of Algonquins.”36 In neither Father Jogues Narrative nor any of the Jesuit Relations so far as examined does the name of “Horican” appear as a tribe, location or name in the Adirondack wilderness.

John Gilmary Shea has a plausible version of the name. In speaking of Lake George he says: “This is now called Lake George, after one of the worthy monarchs of the name. Some old map had Horicon for Hirocoi, and the misprint has been metamorphosed into a name for the lake….”37

Evidently Francis Parkman agreed somewhat with Shea, for in a footnote he says: “Lake George, according to Jogues, was called by the Mohawks Andiatarocte, or ‘Place where the Lake closes.’ Andiataraque is found on a map of Sanson. Spafford, ‘Gazetteer of New York,’ article ‘Lake George,’ says that it was called Canideri-oit, or ‘Tail of the Lake.’ Father Martin, in his notes on Bressani, prefixes to this name that of ‘Horicon,’ but gives no original authority. I have seen an old Latin map on which the name ‘Horiconi’ is set down as belonging to a neighboring tribe. This seems to be only a misprint for ‘Horicoui,’ that is ‘Irocoui,’ or ‘Iroquois.’ In an old English map, prefixed to the rare tract, A Treatise of New England, the ‘Lake of Hierocoyes’ is laid down. The name ‘Horicon,’ as used by Cooper in his ‘Last of the Mohicans,’ seems to have no sufficient historical foundation. In 1646, the lake, as we shall see, was named ‘Lac St. Sacrement.’”38

The name “Horican” disappears, so far as the writer has been able to discover, from the English maps of the eighteenth century, thereby leading to the supposition that the tribe was either amalgamated or absorbed by neighboring tribes, or had been conquered and made tributary in the numerous petty Indian wars in the latter part of the seventeenth and earlier part of the eighteenth centuries. In his earlier work, “The Indian Tribes of Hudson’s River,” E. M. Ruttenber places the Horicans at the headwaters of the Hudson. He, however, changed his views in regard to the tribe considerably when he prepared his “Indian Geographical Names,” published by this association in 1906.39 at this time he wrote: Horikans was written by DeLaet, in 1625, as the name of an Indian tribe living at the headwaters of the Connecticut. On an ancient map Horicans is written in lat. 41, east of the Narragansetts on the coast of New England. In the same latitude Moricans is written west of the Connecticut, and Horikans on the upper Connecticut in latitude 42. Morhicans is the form on Carte Figurative of 1614-16. and Mahicans by the Dutch on the Hudson. The several forms indicate that the tribe was the Moricans or Mourigans of the French, the Maikans or Mahikans of the Dutch and the Mohegans of the English. It is certain that that tribe held the headwaters of the Connecticut as well as of the Hudson. The novelist, Cooper, gave life to DeLaet’s orthography in his ‘Last of the Mohegans.’”

In fact, in an old map upon which the Queen Ann patent of the Kayaderosseras is based in 1708, what is now Hudson Falls is marked as “3 Falls” and Glens Falls as “4th Falls.”

THE  ANCIENT  MAPS  COME TO  LIFE

17. From Cooper’s The Last of the Mohicans, any late edition. Cooper refers here to the “Les Horicans. No map which I have yet seen, or which has been described by others, has this wording of the name. In fact a recent letter from the map division of the Llbrary of Congress says: In answer to the letter…concerning a map, oontaining the name Les Horicans as applied to the Mohlcans, I would say that the name “Horicans” or “Horikans~” oocurs on many early maps but I am unable to find one on which. “Les Horicans” appears…. De Laet’s map gives “Mahicans” with “Les Horikans” in the French edition, 1640. (Memorandum, P. Lee Phillips, chief, division of maps, Library ot Congress, November 6, 1917.) It seems so improbable that Cooper ever saw DeLaet’s Flrench edition, however, I am iforced to believe he made here a slip of memory~ or one of the pen, as he specifies a map in his preface, while DeLaet’s map does not contain the word “Horicans” at all. Again even in the DeLaet text the word is spelled with a “k” which Cooper does not use.

18. Beauchamp.

19. This map, I am informed by Peter Nelson, head of the manuscripts section of the State Library, was preserved in a damaged condition, but tbe part saved is complete as to the New York section of it. Another copy of the map is to be found in the Congressional Library collection of geographical atlases in that compiled by Sir R. Dudley, 1646-47. See Congressional Library list of 1909, no. [100].

20. E. B. O’Callaghan, The Documentary History of the State of New Yark. Albany, 1849, 8vo. ed., 1850, 4to ed., map to face title page.

21. Id. note to 4to edition.

22. P. L. Phillips, chief, division of maps and charts, Library of Congress, List of Geographical Atlases, v. 1, Washington, 1909, p. 214.

23. See map reproduced in colors In E. M. Avery’s History of United States, Cleveland [1905], v. 2, p. 246-47, insert; also id, in John Fiske’s Dutch and Quaker Colonies in America, Houghton, Mifflin and Co., ed. 1903, op· p· 203-4, insert.

24. Reproductions of this map are shown in Collections of New York Historical Society, 2d series. New York, 1841, op. title page; in Justin Winsor’s Narrative and Critical History of America, Boston and New York [1884], v. 4, p. 439; in Proceedings of the New York State Historical Association, v. 6, 1906, op. title page, Indian Geographical Names, by E. M. Ruttenber; and in J. F. Jameson’s Narratives of New Netherland, 1609-1664, Scribners Sons, New York, 1909, op. p. 294. Other reproductions of this map are listed in Winsor, v. 4, P· 438, note 4.

25. Collections of the New York Historical Society, 2d series, New York, 1841, v. 1. p. 125-243. Jameson’s Narratives of New Netherland, p. 295-354.

26. Through the kindness of Peter Nelson in charge of the manuscripts section of the State Library.

27. Leyden, 1630, Elzevirs’ edition.

28. Op. p. 88.

29. See map marked “Nova Francia et Regiones Adiacenti.”

30. Hedges, United States Government ethnologist, is in error in his conclusions that the Horicons were “a people living on the head waters of the Hudson,” nor do his quoted authorities uphold his conclusions. Had he said head waters of the Connecticut, he might have been nearer the fact. Handbook of American Indians, North of Mexico, Washington, 1907, part 1. p. 569.

31. Miss Cooper’s introduction, P· XLIII.

32. See extracts from DeLaet’s New World, in Jameson’s Narratives of New Netherland, 1625, 1630, 1633, 1640-1, p. 43, 47.

33. Wlnsor’s Narrative and Critical History, v. 4, p. 392. Note “from Ogilby’s America p. 169.” A copy of this rare London

Atlas of 1671 is in the State Library at Albany and shows the whole of this map instead of the part of it given in Winsor. From from this it is clearly taken from the earlier Visscher map.

 

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