The Adirondack Park an Open Air Prison – You will be COMPLIANT

Save and Protect Lake George –  Dump Into Champlain ……  You can NOT make this stuff up


When You All Figure Out The  MONEY  is  PHONY …… That’s  when You’ll relize  THERE IS  NO  SPOON  ……. There are  Splinters In Your Minds 

TO  POST STAR  GLENS FALLS  and  LAKE  GEORGE  MIRROR, Adirondack Almanac  …….  The  Post  Star   certainly  KNOWS  the  Paper Mills  and  Logging / Land Interests  and  the  Lake  George  Ice  Issues  very  very  well.     The  Glens  Falls  Banks    ALL  deeply  deeply   deeply    INVOLVED  with  the  State  of  New  York.    ADVENTURES  in   Money  Making …….   Lake  George  The  MILL  POND

Do  a  Word  Search  for  SLUDGE  …….   SEARCH   SLUDGE  BED


1500  Acres  of  SLUDGE

Protecting  Andia’Ta’Roc’Te   from the  WORST of  Invasive Species  “MAN”    and  the  Corporations .   To honor  all   GLENS  FALLS   INDIANS  and  LAKE  GEORGE  WARRIORS  ……..   Son  of  Swamp  Fox

Infectious Pathogens Septic Leachate

DAM  ”   A   ”    That’s  the   Perpetrator    DAM  ”  A  ”    and  the   LOUSY   Penstock ……  Choking  Lake  George  for  ALL   The  Loot  They  Can  …….  DAMMING    The  MILL  POND   For  the  GANGSTER   BANKSTERS

The Warren County Glens Falls Lake George Queenbury Ticonderoga DEC MAFIA the Adirondack MOBSTERS that’s what’s on My Mind ……… The CESSPOOL CABAL ……

Sent to New York State regarding Lake George Park Commission and the Lake George Trespassing Case …. The Bath Tub and Pin Hole Problem Financed and Built by the Glens Falls Banks



The US  ARMY  CORP  Knows  all  about  FLUSHING
Omaha, NE — The annual sediment flushing exercise will be completed at Cherry Creek Reservoir, near Aurora, Colorado on Wednesday, June 1, 2016.

Katie Seefus, water manager in the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers’ Omaha District office, says …. “When the gates are opened, the high velocity of the water leaving the reservoir scours the area immediately upstream of the gates and transports sediment with the flow,” said Seefus.  The sediment flush is required to allow proper operation of the outlet gates.   ( Just Like Lake George and the  Poop Chute River  )



FLUSHING THE POLLUTION  from the La Chute  River and  FLUSHING  the  Pollution and  Sewage / Leachate from Lake George

High Water Sinks State Islands 1919  ….. Annual Dock, Boat House Damages ….. see NYS  Conservation Commissioner  George D. Pratt  ……   Gentleman’s Agreement to END all  the  Annual Property Damage

Submerged Native Encampment West of  Assembly Point

Flooded  5000  Acres  of  Land  WOW  5000  Acres


AA  Drinking Water Source  ? ……..    HAHAHA   LOL

The  FLUSHING  of  the  Lake  George  TOILET  BASIN ……  Flushing the  Sewage Ladin Water to Lake  Champlain , CUTE  really  CUTE   DEC  /   LGPCleachate


THE UNFILTERED TRUTH ABOUT NYS  DEC’s  and the Loving Caring  Environmentalists of  New York ……  The  GOOD  NEWS  Andy Cuomo is  DEMANDING   The  Fake  Press   NOT  BROADCAST  about The  Champlain and Lake George Water Sheds


7 Places to Swim That Are Not Lake Champlain 

Sewage Leachate Is Extremely Poisonous and Toxic


The John B. Stetson Inspection Reports for the US   ARMY

The examination of documents and visual inspection of the dam and appurtenant structures did not reveal conditions which constitute an immediate hazard to human life or property. The dam, however, has a number of problem areas which should be investigated further. The structural stability analysis indicates unsatisfactory stability for the dam when subjected to forces which could occur during winter operations (including ice loading), the Probable Maximum Flood (PMF), and 1/2 PMF events. A structural stability investigation of the dam should be started within 6 months to determine the effect of the dam’s steel bar anchor system and the uplift forces acting on the base of the dam. Remedial measures should be completed within 2 years to increase the structural stability of the facility to meet the Corps of Engineers screening criteria. The hydrologic/hydraulic analysis establishes the spillway capacity as 46% of the Probable Maximum Flood (PMF) with the sluice gates open and 30% of the PMF if the gates remain closed throughout the storm. The dam will be overtopped by 2.72 feet by the PMF with the gates closed or 2.55 feet with the gates opened. However, the spillway is capable of passing the 1/2 PMF under either of these two conditions without the dam being overtopped. Therefore, the spillway is assessed as inadequate according to the Corps of Engineers screening criteria.       August 1980
John B. Stetson  Defense Technical Information Center  DOD


SEE  Lake  George  Outlet  DAM  “A”

 DEAR Governor Cuomo, Eric Schneiderman and NYS DEC Commissioner Seggos Et Al …….. The Lake George Pin Hole Exposes ……
Thank You  Dr. Langmuir  and  Apperson
What is truly  amazing the  FACT  that  The  Historical Record has been compiled.    Way to go  FINCH  PRUYN ,  Glens  Falls  Paper,  Lake  George  Paper  and Ticonderoga  Paper …….   AMAZING  STUFF  HUH




1,300,000,000  Pieces of Admissible Evidence Listen to the United States Supreme Court Discuss the Huge Pile of Toxic Slop ……..


Understanding  The  Giant FLUSHINGS  of  the  LEACHATE  LADEN QUEEN  of  America’s  Leach fields  ……  Flushing the  Brownfields of  Lake George  …..  Pre 1980  Records Requested from US  ARMY


AUTHOR'S  NOTE ......  Adam West's   Accident of  NOT SEEING  a  Dark Brown Garwood at Night on Lake George is Accidental like the  Garwood Captain NOT  Seeing or  Hearing the West Boat was an ACCIDENT.   The Engineered Operations of the PIN HOLE  DRAIN WORKS at the La Chute River .......  That was what is also known as  INTENTIONAL INADEQUACY  by DESIGN.   So goes the  Day to Day Operations of the  EMPIRE'S  SLAVE  STATE  .......   Ka  Ching   Ka  Ching  .......   YEAR  ROUND  WATER  for  the  EMPIRE's  La    Chute   River  Money Making Machines    24/7 -  365  with  SCINTER  ........   Understanding  the   PIN HOLE  and BATH TUB   Gang ........  Adventures  in   INADEQUACY  by  DESIGN  ...........   Maximizing  the  LOOT  for  the  MASTAS   at  the  EMPIRE STATE   and  the  GLENS  FALLS  BANKS   and  MAFIAS  ........

Sewage Leachate Is Extremely Poisonous and Toxic

It should be noted that  State District  Judge Isaac Kellogg’s  and the International Paper’s  Dam  was  Unlawful /  Illegal   and  the  Systems Property / IP   MOBSTERS   never  paid  even  ONE CENT for all the  years of  Boathouse, Dock, Sea Wall,  Shoreline and Island Damage  ………   Never Paid  A  Single   NOT  ONE  PENNY  for all  the  damage they caused.


Basil Seggos,  Dan Wick, Andrew Cuomo, Eric Schneiderman, Lake George Association, DEC, Lake George Association


Listen to the ORAL Evidence from the US Supreme Court

The GF Banks – Paper Company – State all owned and OPERATED by the same CON MEN …… All With Their Heads on the Same Pillow ……..

WHY Has IP and Systems Properties been let off  SCOTT FREE ?

Special Note to LGPC  Dave Wick, the Post Star, Basil Seggos, Eric Schneiderman and Governor Cuomo , Albany Times Union, New York Times and good Old  Fund For Lake George, RPI and yes of course Nature Conservancy  .......   An entire Gallon of  Gas  .....  I  mean  A  Whole One .......  Imagine the BILLIONS OF  GALLONS of  Toxins flushed from Lake George and the LaChute .......  YES  That is with a  B likely TRILLIONS  actually ....... Dave Wick  it's a  DROP IN THE OCEAN Buddy

AGENDA 21 YUP Agenda 1521 and 1621 and 1721 and 1821 and 1921 and 2021 ………….. 3021 ……… HELLO ………

Raking in the Bucks for the Wealthy Clic


Author’s  Note :  LGPC  Director  Dave Wicks  was  WITCH HUNTED  by  Governor  Cuomo   OVER  ONE  GALLON  OF  GAS  Spilled in  the  Lake …….  JUST  ONE …….  Here’s  BILLONS

The GUBBERMINT is taking Over by Buying Everything in sight with BILLS OF CREDIT …….. Printed from THIN AIR ……. Whoo Hoooooo ………. COMMUNISM on STEROIDS…/

The Uber Wealthy  Bosses , Oligarchs  the  Elite are  the  KINGS of the NEW York   NEW England   Royal Forests ….  Hale to the  Thieves


This is a powerful series on money, I am not a religious person but this guy Rod Parsley really hits home and I would go to church just to hear…


Ya’ll Be  Good  Little   SMURFS or  We’ll Sic the  Dogs on You


Stony Creek “” <>
I am seeking information on the Financial Interests and Groups that have been acquiring Natural Resources with FINANCING from the Federal Reserve Notes from interests such as International Paper and Finch Pruyn.
I inquiry seeks to correlate the Federal Reserve Note QUANTITATIVE EASING or FIAT CURRENCY purchases of large tracts of Land in Your Jurisdiction as well as generally in the Blue Line.
It appears to Me that the Glens Falls Banks / Arrow Financial / The New York Federal Reserve, New York State and such groups as Nature Conservancy, Sierra Club, Protect The Adirondacks etc., are all deeply involved with United Nations and the World’s Central Banks. Acquiring trillions of DOLLARS worth of Natural Resources, Minerals, Rare Earths, Gas and Oil with Quantitative Easing Scrip ( Fiat Currency ) seems to be a very unique RACKET for those IN THEIR CABAL.
Please share the records of the Stony Creek Assessors / Tax Office that reveal the transactions of the type I identify herein
Seems as though Lawrence Rockefeller and Nelson and David along with some Nature Conservancy Folks, The Glens Falls Banks ( Arrow Financial ) and Large Multi-National Corporations have worked out quite the RACKETEERING ENTERPRISE. IMetals and NYCO, International Paper and Finch Pruyn and many many others with the FINANCIERS of the Environmental Mafias.
Thank You
Judson Witham
This is what  Septic Tank Tea  Leach Field  Wastes that are being  FLUSHED  from Lake  George to Lake Champlain  ACTUALLY  CONTAIN ……   Basil  Seggos,  Eric  Schneiderman,  Dan  Wick,  Lake George Park Commission, NYS  DEC  and  the  GOVERNORS of  New  York  are full of  LEACHATE   TEA

Lake George  New York  …..  This is what  You’re ACTUALLY  Drinking  and  Swimming In

AGENDA  21   AGENDA  2030     The  Empire STATE’s  Open Air  PRISON ……..    OBEY

SUNY POLYTECH   is  hardly alone   The  Buffalo  Billions  is only scratching the  Surface …….    FOLLOW  THE  MONEY  Behind  the  BILLIONS  in Public  Revenue  POURED INTO  You Will OBEY Park

Keeping the  Riff Raff  out of  MILLIONAIRES  ROW

“They do NOT want SHACKS  on the Lake”   George Foster Peabody

God  Bless  Millionaires  Row

Non Compliant will be  CRUSHED  like  Robert Moses 

The Whites Only  Millionaire Boys Club of  Lake George NY

They  even got rid of the  INDIAN ENCAMPMENTS

The  Banksters &  Industrialist  Hucksters of  MILLIONAIRES  ROW

The L. Judson Morehouse  George F Peabody   HOA and  da BOIZ Lake George  Association

CDOs  and  Bonds and  Tons and Tons of  GREEN  BUCKS   Flooding to  Private Corporations  Pockets …….  The  More and More and MoreLAND  Conspiracy …….   LOTS O GREEN for  WALL STREET  Campaign Donations and Foreign For Profit Corporations


Oh and for the Record The Schroon River Water Shed and the Great Sacandaga Lake and Lake George are loaded with THORIUM ……. Maybe Lake Basin in between maybe possibly might be as well ……… Hmmmmmm I know French Mountain Is ……..

Once You Get a Government Agency …… You can NEVER get rid of it


Obedience and Compliance is the



YOU WILL  OBEY  THE  DICTATES  OF  ROCKEFELLER,  The Adirondack Council  the ADK and the 46ers ……  Nature Conservancy and Sierra Club and the Green Nazis  in  COMPLIANT PARK


Robert Moses and the Lake George Park Commission

Almost every park and camp ground in New York State is administered by the Office of Parks and Recreation, with the exception of those in the Catskills and the Adirondacks. The Department of Environmental Conservation manages those.

Wint Aldrich, a Deputy Commissioner for Historic Preservation at Parks through four administrations, once explained that anomaly to me. “The Conservation Department didn’t want Robert Moses anywhere near the Forest Preserve,” Aldrich said.

Moses, who had controlled everything even remotely related to New York’s parks since 1924, was notoriously averse to wilderness preservation.

He was the man who wanted to build a highway along the shore of Lake George at Tongue Mountain, a plan that conservationist John Apperson foiled. Legend has it that Apperson, who knew Governor Franklin Roosevelt through his wife’s brother Hall, took Roosevelt on a boat ride through the Narrows and persuaded him that a highway along the shore would desecrate the lake. The governor agreed, and the plan was shelved.

I recently came upon another example of Moses’ distaste for environmental conservation. He was the only figure of prominence, inside state government or out, to oppose the creation of the Lake George Park Commission.   (  correction Mr Hall  ….  Clifford  and  Anita  Witham  Enormously Worked  AGAINST  the  TAKE OVER  AS WELL  see  Swamp / East Shores Harbour  Marina Harris Bay  Assembly Point )   Ator’s Note ……  Likely reason for the  SECRETED DEC FILES on the Witham Family and the  Assault and Attack upn Me at Colonie  exmining tose  SECRET IVESTIGATIONFILES …..

Moses’ objections to the 1961 legislation creating the Commission were based in part upon the fact that the bill gave the proposed group “no power to develop parks or recreational facilities,” the only two things which, to his mind, justified the conservation of natural resources.

Since 1987, the year the state legislature empowered it with new functions, the Lake George Park Commission has (among other things) regulated marinas and private docks, drafted new rules to protect water quality and waged war on invasive aquatic species.

But as conceived by L. Judson Morhouse, the chairman of the New York State Republican Committee who owned a house on northern Lake George, the Lake George Park Commission was to be something unprecedented in New York State at that time:

a regional zoning agency.   ( Ka  Ching  Ka  Ching  Ka  Ching  )

YES  AND  JUST LIKE  OLD  York    IN  OLD  ENGLAND   ……THEY  BUILT  THE  GREAT  NORTHWAY AS WELL  Rockefeller’s  Bankster  Butties  that is   YES   NEW York’s  Great  Northway

The Age Old  Forest Games of the UBER WEALTHY   God  Bless  Millionaires  Row

“I have been working a year on the new Lake George Park Commission,” Morhouse wrote to one of Governor Nelson Rockefeller’s aides in January of 1961. “It permits people to establish areas where the scenic character and natural attractions will continue to be preserved.”   ( Later to be  MONETIZED  and EXPLOITED  for the  Well Connected and Wealthy  Donors to the  Oligarchs )     The  Grand  Scheme and Circus run by  DEC

The zoning was to be voluntary, or “Do It Yourself” zoning, as the commission’s first members called it. Property owners in places such as Rogers Rock, Sabbath Day Point and Assembly Point were to be granted the authority to ban commercial development in their neighborhoods through restrictive covenants.

The fact that the zoning was to be voluntary did nothing to diminish Moses’ objections to that aspect of the proposal.

“It should be borne in mind that the State has always refrained from entering the field of local zoning – a power which has been delegated to the towns and villages,” wrote Moses.

Moses believed that a regional zoning agency would set a dangerous precedent; and, in fact, it was viewed as a precedent, but a desirable one.

The enabling legislation, wrote the counsel for the state’s Office of Local Government, “embodies a new type of attack on the problems of preserving the natural beauty of lake waterfronts.”

(A few years later, legislation incorporating voluntary zoning for the entire Adirondack Park was developed, but died. In 1971, of course, the legislature approved the Adirondack Park Agency act, which mandated rather than permitted zoning.)

What truly annoyed Moses, though, was not the proposed Commission’s failure to adequately promote recreation, or its infringement on local zoning powers, but the fact that he would not control it.

Here, he suggests as much: “it is without logical relation to existing regional State park commissions.” Those regional state park commissions, it should be noted, were controlled by a State Council of Parks, of which Moses was, of course, the chairman. (He was also president of one of them, the Long Island State Park Commission.)

Governor Rockefeller ignored Moses’ opposition, and signed the Lake George Park Commission bill into law in 1961.

A year later, Rockefeller asked Moses to resign as the chairman of the State Council of Parks. If he did, he could remain at his four other state posts (as well as president of the 1964 World’s Fair and in his three New York City jobs.) Moses rejected the offer, and Rockefeller stripped him of all the power he had aggregated to himself through forty years of government service.

Moses didn’t know it at the time, but his opposition to the Lake George Park Commission was the beginning of his end.


SEE   Lake George Wild Forest Plans  ……..  THE  EMPIRE’S   INQUISITION  ………   DEC Region 5  Warrensburg   THE GREAT EMPRICAL  ENQUIRY  ……..   Along  the  Great North Way  in the FOREST   of   NEW  not  OLD  York ……..   NEW  not  OLD   England

The  FOR  PROFIT   Monetization  of  the  FOREST  /    DEC  /    SUNY  /  RPI   use  of  the   PARK   for  Scientific  Research and Partnerships  with  FOREIGN   For  Profit Corporations   LIKE  The  People’s  Republic of  China.    Ka  Ching  Ka  Ching  Ka  Ching   all those  GRANTS  and  No Interest  Low Interest   TAX  FREE  GREEN ENVIRONMENTAL PROGRAMS  ……..    GO    NYS    DEC



A LETTER TO  THE  NATIONAL  SCIENCE FOUNDATION  and the  State of New York /  Town of  Lake  George

SwampFox <>

9:06 AM (24 minutes ago)

to Vinnie, Deborah, Margaret, Supervisor, Marisa, Nancy, Dan
IBM /  LENOVO   are  FOR  PROFIT  Operated by the People’s Republic Of China.   The Banks and Foreign Corporations that are PROFITTING  on Non Profit   FREE  Public  Grant Money is  ALARMING.    The  Indictments of the  SUNY PolyTech  and others revealed by the  PUBLIC INPUT  to the  MoreLand Commission have resulted in many indictments by the US Attorney.    The  Chinese Government and Their  For Profit activities with RPI  and  Darrin Fresh  Water with  Fund for Lake George  and on and on and on  is  SHOCKING.
In today’s atmosphere of  US  State Department /   Clinton Foundation     PAY TO  PLAY  and the  criminal Racketeering surrounding New York Governor’s Office is   UNACCEPTABLE  ……..    Lake George Warriors  are deeply offended.
The Morphology  and Formations of the Topography of the  Depths of Lake George  have been mapped, researched, studied and DIGITIZED  and the  Jefferson Project’s   Intelligence and  Surveillance   abilities  WITH things like  SOLAR   POWERED  SUBMARINE  VEHICLES  is  all  being  funded  with  PUBLIC  MONEY.      Not for Profits like  Darrin Fresh Water,  SUNY  and  RPI  seem to think  SELLING this technology to the  The People’s Republic of China   /   CHINESE  MILITARY   should be financed by Lake George Basin  and  New York /   US  Taxpayers.
Lake George and the  People of  Lake George  should  benefit from all the  expenditures of  PUBLIC MONEY.     Certainly  Tom West  Esq   and  Mike Stafford   Esq   and  the  US  Attorney  in  New  York  I believe would agree.     Non profits in  BUSINESS  with  COMMERCIAL  Interests and operation on Tax Free /  FREE  MONEY  ……..   SMELLS TO  HIGH  HEAVEN.
CC:   Relevant Parties
———- Forwarded message ———-
From: SwampFox <>
Date: Wed, Nov 30, 2016 at 8:20 AM
Subject: Re: A FOIL and FOIA ….Grants Low Income Loans Tax Incentives and Funded Programs ….. FOIL
To: “Evans, Sandra” <>

The  Public Grants / Funding for  RPI’s  and  the  Darrin  Fresh Water’s  Mapping  and  DIGITAL  Imaging of the  Topography of the  Depths and Formations of Lake George as well as the other research enabled with  PUBLIC FUNDING   and  Their Alleged  NON PROFIT  Status  caused Me to ask for records files charts and maps of their research PER  FOIA  and the  NYS  FOIL  laws.
I am assuming that  Federal Revenues given to institutions LIKE   SUNY, RPI  and  DFW INST  require that Their Programs and Research be  PUBLICALLY SHARED  and not Sold and Marketed for PROFIT  ONLY.
Please provide Me with COPIES of the  GRANT REQUIREMENTS that RPI  and  DARRIN endorsed to receive the significant fundings they have.   NYS’s  agreements require Openness and  Accessibility to Records, Charts, Files and Work Product  funded with  PUBLIC  MONEY.
Thank You
Judson Witham

[PDF]Lake George Wild Forest Draft Unit Management Plan – PDF

Division of Lands & Forests. Lake George Wild Forest. Draft Unit Management Plan including: Mossy Point Boat Launch,. Horicon Boat Launch, South Bay Boat …

Lake George Wild Forest – NYS Dept. of Environmental Conservation › … › New York’s Forest Preserve › Forest Preserve Unit Description

Recreationists also enjoy year-round activities on Lake George, and popular fishing and camping locations at Lily Pond, Jabe Pond, Gay Pond and Palmer Pond. … The following sites are located in the Lake George Wild Forest and have wheelchair accessible features. … Directions to Bear …


SUNY  PolyTech    is  merely  the  Tip of  a  Giant Iceberg  of  Racketeering, Slush Funds and the  Green Bonds  CABAL in New York

SEE    the   Poisoning  of  NEW  York   for  the  Well  Connected and  Wealthy

aadumpYes  It’s  All  True …… For the  Right Well Connected and Large Political Donors and Oligarchs   YOU CAN  CRAP  ALL  OVER THE  PARK  and  POISON  THE  AIR  AS  WELL

FACTS  are  STUBBORN  THINGS  ask  the  LGPC  Director  Dave Wick  and  Basil Seggos  and  Eric  Schneiderman oh and the  Lake George Association,  RPI  University and  the  Fund  for Lake George oh and I almost forgot  Lake George Mirror, Adirondack Almanac  an PETER  BEUR

SwampFox <>
3:40 PM (0 minutes ago)
to dave, jjohns, justin, afhall, lhhall
WOW One Gallon of Gasoline Andy Cuomo JUST ONE ? ……… Seggos Basil and Cuomo should DETONATE over what was done to Clifford and Anita Witham ……… I’ll be holding My breath NOT …….
Compost Tea comes from Compost ……… So Septic Tank Tea is a Reality
The BROWN FIELDS of the Lake George Basin
You see the reality is ALL that Septic Leaching Tea is far far far more THAN Phosphates and Nitrates …….. AND those Leach Fields are EVERYWHERE
What is TRULY AMAZING is George Foster Peabody’s Ideas about SHACKS on Lake George …….. He only wanted MANSIONS like His I suppose.
I remember the Physical Assault at Colonie Conservation Offices when I began to LAWFULLY inspect the Investigation Files by NYS On My Family. I suppose Getting Rid of Dissent and Non-Compliance LIKE the DUMPING of Robert Moses and the Attempt on David Wick is a CUSTOM POLICY AND PRACTICE such as the TARGETTING Of Clifford and Anita Witham for Their Harris Bay Marina. IN ANY EVENT Operating the MILL POND and Flush Flush Flush Flushing MILLIONS and MILLIONS of Gallons of Industrial Toxins, Mill Wastes, Sewage and Septic Tank Tea down the LaChute ……… Really Pales to that GALLON of GASOLINE Huh Dave Wick.
Can You imagine the BILLIONS of GALLONS of TEA all that SLOP Flushed with the Flusher makes in Lake Champlain. Basil Seggos and Eric Schneiderman and Andy Cuomo and all those Cornell / SUNY Health Sciences and SUNY NANO Tech and RPI Researchers and Scientists should CALCULATE the MASSIVE Compost / Poop Chute River TEA that Lake Champlain “IS” Loaded with Huh
In closing those WILD ICE SHEET FLUCTUATIONS caused by the GIANT FLUSHER of International Paper’s and New York State’s ( NYS It’s Their FLUSHER ) Can You tell Me DAVE WICK “Officially That Is ” How many BILLIONS of Gallons of WASTES have been FLUSHED ……. Using the PINHOLE IN THE BATH TUB ……. Flusher at the LaChute River ? Maybe RPI and Darrin Freshwater Institute and NYS DEC cares to do the MATH.
In closing The Governor’s Office, Basil Seggos and Eric Schneiderman should explain the TOTAL LACK of Damages Paid to Lake George Dock, Boat House and Cribbing, Island Repair and Shoreline REPAIR Costs that New York State and IP paid for DECADES of Damages caused by the Flush Flush Flush Flushing of all that SLOP into the front of Mount Defiance, Mount Independence and Fort Ticonderoga …….. So Dave Wick , That’s BILLIONS of GALLONS RIGHT.
Judson Witham
Son of the Swamp Fox
Oh and PS …… from 1961 and through to 1970 those ICE FLUCTUATIONS destroyed Our Swamp / East Shores Harbour so many times Mother and Dad were FINANCIALLY DESTROYED ( It Killed Dad and Ruined Mother’s Life )……. Maybe NYS and International Paper Should pay for the Damages ? I mean that would only be FAIR RIGHT ….. Dave Wick
THE FACTS ARE STUBBORN THINGS Lake George Park Commission and DEC are stuck with the FACTS ……. Like New York State
The Glens Falls  Feeder Canal, Champlain Canal, Hudson River and Lake George  ALL  FLUSH  Pollution into Lake Champlain ……. 


SEE  HERE FOR SOME  TRUE  Glens Fall’s  Area  History

The Last of the Mohicans, Cooper’s Historical Inventions, and his Cave

James Austin Holden
(University of the State of New York)*
Paper presented at the Eighteenth Annual Meeting of the New York State Historical Association, October 3-5, 1916, Cooperstown, New York.
Published in Proceedings of the New York State Historical Association, Vol. XVI (1917), pp. 212-255.


The  Magical Fantastic  Dancing Surveys of  Queensbury and Warren County ……  The  REAL  HISTORY

Documentary History of New York

This map, I am informed by Peter Nelson, head of the manuscripts section of the State Library, was preserved in a damaged condition, but tbe part saved is complete as to the New York section of it. Another copy of the map is to be found in the Congressional Library collection of geographical atlases in that compiled by Sir R. Dudley, 1646-47. See Congressional Library list of 1909, no. [100].

The map which Doctor Holden supposed had supplied Cooper with his name for Lake George, was at the time believed to be one of the oldest maps of the province extant. It was engraved by Lucini, an Italian, and before the fire of 1911 was in the map collection of the New York State Library.19 It shows the “Horicans” at latitude 42 and inland from “the gulf of Plymouth.”20 Doctor O’Callaghan believed this map, though undated, to have been engraved about 1631.21 More modern authorities, however, would place its construction around 1639 or 1635,22 or perhaps even a little later.

There were other old maps of the New England and New Netherland regions which might have been available for Cooper’s use, but even today some of these are scarce and rare, except in reproductions, so that their accessibility in 1826 is extremely doubtful.

Among them was Nicholas J. Visscher’s map of the New Netherlands, published in 1655, which shows the “Horicans” located somewhere near Buzzards bay, not far from latitude 41 in southeastern Massachusetts, the “Moricans” near the mouth of the Fresh river, and the “Horikans” established toward the upper reaches of the Fresh (Versche), now called the Connecticut, river, between latitude 43 and 44. They, with the river, are placed, however, to the westward of Lake Irocosia, or Champlain, on the map instead of the eastward, as they should have been.

Here is an embarrassment of riches, where we have “Horicans” and “Horikans,” to say nothing of “Moricans,” to choose from,23 each one located many miles away from the others.

Next we have Adriaen vander Donck’s map of the New Netherlands, published in 1656,24 which shows a tribe called Horikans on the upper reaches of the Versche (Fresh) river (the Connecticut) about opposite “Fort Orange” (Albany) and “Colonye.”

It seems strange that vander Donck did not describe the various nations named on his map, as he has given us a very good pen picture of the New Netherlands in his “Representation” of 1650, with a description of the “Fresh river.”25

Miss Cooper, in her introduction to the Houghton and Mifflin edition of Cooper of 1896, has tried to show that the Dutch writer, DeLaet, places the tribe of the Horicans near Lake George. I do not read the passage in the same way, nor do I agree with her conclusions.

De Laet says, in his New World, in chapter 8: “Next on the same south coast, succeeds a river named by our countrymen Fresh River [the Connecticut]…at the distance of fifteen leagues…nation is called Sequins. From this place the river stretches ten leagues, mostly in a northerly direction, but is very crooked;…the natives there…are called Nawaas. This place is situated in latitude 41º 48′. The river is not navigable with yachts for more than two leagues farther, as it is very shallow and has a rocky bottom. Within the land dwells another nation of savages who are called Horikans; they descend the river in canoes made of bark.” That is the present Connecticut river, not the Hudson.

Since preparing the foregoing the writer has been fortunate to find26 in the New York State Library a copy of the rare 1630 edition of DeLaet’s “Beschryvinge van west Indien.”27 In this the original passage runs: “Binnen in het landt woondt een ander natie van Wilden welck sy noemen Horikans, die dese rivier af komen met canoen van basten ghemaeckt.” This, A. J. F. van-Laer, New York State Archivist, has translated as follows: “In the interior of the country dwells another tribe of Indians whom they call Horikans, who come down the river in canoes made of bark.” This it will be noted closely corresponds with the rendering given in Jameson, it being kept in mind the river in question is the Connecticut of today.

In this old Elzevir edition are two rather interesting maps of collateral interest, on one of which,28 showing about latitude 45-46, are two unnamed bodies of water similar in shape to Lakes Champlain and George. Beyond these are two other bodies somewhat similarly joined together, one marked “Grand lac,” the other “lac des Yroquois,” On the other map, however, between latitude 43 and 46, are two bodies of water joined together to form “Lac de Champlain” and {“}Yroquoys,”29 which more nearly resemble in location and shape those we are familiar with.

It is plain from an examination of DeLaet’s description, therefore, that by no possibility of translation can the Horikans (with a “k”) be transferred except by force to the Lake George region30 from the Fresh or Connecticut River, down which “they descend in bark canoes.”

After describing the “Fresh” river, DeLaet gives a description of the “Great river” (the Hudson), as far as “Fort Orange” (Albany). He mentions the Mackwaes (Mohawks), the enemies of the Mohicans, but in no way describes the Horicans, as being located in this section, and certainly not in the vicinity of Lake George as Miss Cooper intimates.31 Had they been there, DeLaet would undoubtedly have mentioned them, as they would have been the natural enemies of the Iroquois, or Mohawks.32

The English publisher, John Ogilby, shows the “Horikans” on the upper reaches of the Versche river on his map “Nova Belgii Tabula,” 1670, in his folio atlas of America, but it is evidently copied from the earlier Visscher map, showing the same inaccurate placing of Lake Irocosia to the east of the Connecticut instead of the west and about opposite the latitude of “New Albany” and “Colonye” on the Hudson.33

In Louis Hennepin’s work, “A New Discovery of a Vast Country in America,” in the map at the beginning of the book, is shown what purports to be the region now known as northern New York. The map is neither accurate nor plainly indicated, but near the headwaters of the Hudson and Lake George and Champlain appears the name “Horican.” The query is: Did Cooper refer to this map or some of the others mentioned? Hennepin does not appear ever to have seen Lake Champlain or Lake George, his travels being in the western part of the State, in Ohio, the farther west and the south, and his information touching eastern New York was largely derived from others. His knowledge was second hand, although his map may be good enough for a novelist’s purposes. As a geographer, Hennepin has been rather savagely attacked by historians, and his text assailed as to its accuracy.34

On the subject of the Mahikans, Dr. W. M. Beauchamp has said: “The Mahikans were the most northern nation of the Algonquin family in New York, occupying both banks of the Hudson and for some distance west along its upper waters. Saratoga was once in their territory. They claimed the land for two days’ journey west of Albany and farther south their claim was good. Their southern limits were below the Catskills, and some place them still farther south. South of these were several small nations of this family, whose names and locations are somewhat confused.”35 It will be noted that Doctor Beauchamp, in assigning to the Mahikans an occupation so northerly, nowhere designates them as Horicans.

In considering this matter too, it must be remembered that the original inhabitants of the Lake George region were called “Adirondacks,” or tree-eaters. An old Jesuit Relation says in describing this region: “We find here also the Adirondacks, that is to say, eaters of trees. This name has been given them by the Iroquois in ridicule for their fasting while on the chase (hunting). It has been changed more slowly into that of Algonquins.”36 In neither Father Jogues Narrative nor any of the Jesuit Relations so far as examined does the name of “Horican” appear as a tribe, location or name in the Adirondack wilderness.

John Gilmary Shea has a plausible version of the name. In speaking of Lake George he says: “This is now called Lake George, after one of the worthy monarchs of the name. Some old map had Horicon for Hirocoi, and the misprint has been metamorphosed into a name for the lake….”37

Evidently Francis Parkman agreed somewhat with Shea, for in a footnote he says: “Lake George, according to Jogues, was called by the Mohawks Andiatarocte, or ‘Place where the Lake closes.’ Andiataraque is found on a map of Sanson. Spafford, ‘Gazetteer of New York,’ article ‘Lake George,’ says that it was called Canideri-oit, or ‘Tail of the Lake.’ Father Martin, in his notes on Bressani, prefixes to this name that of ‘Horicon,’ but gives no original authority. I have seen an old Latin map on which the name ‘Horiconi’ is set down as belonging to a neighboring tribe. This seems to be only a misprint for ‘Horicoui,’ that is ‘Irocoui,’ or ‘Iroquois.’ In an old English map, prefixed to the rare tract, A Treatise of New England, the ‘Lake of Hierocoyes’ is laid down. The name ‘Horicon,’ as used by Cooper in his ‘Last of the Mohicans,’ seems to have no sufficient historical foundation. In 1646, the lake, as we shall see, was named ‘Lac St. Sacrement.’”38

The name “Horican” disappears, so far as the writer has been able to discover, from the English maps of the eighteenth century, thereby leading to the supposition that the tribe was either amalgamated or absorbed by neighboring tribes, or had been conquered and made tributary in the numerous petty Indian wars in the latter part of the seventeenth and earlier part of the eighteenth centuries. In his earlier work, “The Indian Tribes of Hudson’s River,” E. M. Ruttenber places the Horicans at the headwaters of the Hudson. He, however, changed his views in regard to the tribe considerably when he prepared his “Indian Geographical Names,” published by this association in 1906.39 at this time he wrote: Horikans was written by DeLaet, in 1625, as the name of an Indian tribe living at the headwaters of the Connecticut. On an ancient map Horicans is written in lat. 41, east of the Narragansetts on the coast of New England. In the same latitude Moricans is written west of the Connecticut, and Horikans on the upper Connecticut in latitude 42. Morhicans is the form on Carte Figurative of 1614-16. and Mahicans by the Dutch on the Hudson. The several forms indicate that the tribe was the Moricans or Mourigans of the French, the Maikans or Mahikans of the Dutch and the Mohegans of the English. It is certain that that tribe held the headwaters of the Connecticut as well as of the Hudson. The novelist, Cooper, gave life to DeLaet’s orthography in his ‘Last of the Mohegans.’”

In fact, in an old map upon which the Queen Ann patent of the Kayaderosseras is based in 1708, what is now Hudson Falls is marked as “3 Falls” and Glens Falls as “4th Falls.”


17. From Cooper’s The Last of the Mohicans, any late edition. Cooper refers here to the “Les Horicans. No map which I have yet seen, or which has been described by others, has this wording of the name. In fact a recent letter from the map division of the Llbrary of Congress says: In answer to the letter…concerning a map, oontaining the name Les Horicans as applied to the Mohlcans, I would say that the name “Horicans” or “Horikans~” oocurs on many early maps but I am unable to find one on which. “Les Horicans” appears…. De Laet’s map gives “Mahicans” with “Les Horikans” in the French edition, 1640. (Memorandum, P. Lee Phillips, chief, division of maps, Library ot Congress, November 6, 1917.) It seems so improbable that Cooper ever saw DeLaet’s Flrench edition, however, I am iforced to believe he made here a slip of memory~ or one of the pen, as he specifies a map in his preface, while DeLaet’s map does not contain the word “Horicans” at all. Again even in the DeLaet text the word is spelled with a “k” which Cooper does not use.

18. Beauchamp.

19. This map, I am informed by Peter Nelson, head of the manuscripts section of the State Library, was preserved in a damaged condition, but tbe part saved is complete as to the New York section of it. Another copy of the map is to be found in the Congressional Library collection of geographical atlases in that compiled by Sir R. Dudley, 1646-47. See Congressional Library list of 1909, no. [100].

20. E. B. O’Callaghan, The Documentary History of the State of New Yark. Albany, 1849, 8vo. ed., 1850, 4to ed., map to face title page.

21. Id. note to 4to edition.

22. P. L. Phillips, chief, division of maps and charts, Library of Congress, List of Geographical Atlases, v. 1, Washington, 1909, p. 214.

23. See map reproduced in colors In E. M. Avery’s History of United States, Cleveland [1905], v. 2, p. 246-47, insert; also id, in John Fiske’s Dutch and Quaker Colonies in America, Houghton, Mifflin and Co., ed. 1903, op· p· 203-4, insert.

24. Reproductions of this map are shown in Collections of New York Historical Society, 2d series. New York, 1841, op. title page; in Justin Winsor’s Narrative and Critical History of America, Boston and New York [1884], v. 4, p. 439; in Proceedings of the New York State Historical Association, v. 6, 1906, op. title page, Indian Geographical Names, by E. M. Ruttenber; and in J. F. Jameson’s Narratives of New Netherland, 1609-1664, Scribners Sons, New York, 1909, op. p. 294. Other reproductions of this map are listed in Winsor, v. 4, P· 438, note 4.

25. Collections of the New York Historical Society, 2d series, New York, 1841, v. 1. p. 125-243. Jameson’s Narratives of New Netherland, p. 295-354.

26. Through the kindness of Peter Nelson in charge of the manuscripts section of the State Library.

27. Leyden, 1630, Elzevirs’ edition.

28. Op. p. 88.

29. See map marked “Nova Francia et Regiones Adiacenti.”

30. Hedges, United States Government ethnologist, is in error in his conclusions that the Horicons were “a people living on the head waters of the Hudson,” nor do his quoted authorities uphold his conclusions. Had he said head waters of the Connecticut, he might have been nearer the fact. Handbook of American Indians, North of Mexico, Washington, 1907, part 1. p. 569.

31. Miss Cooper’s introduction, P· XLIII.

32. See extracts from DeLaet’s New World, in Jameson’s Narratives of New Netherland, 1625, 1630, 1633, 1640-1, p. 43, 47.

33. Wlnsor’s Narrative and Critical History, v. 4, p. 392. Note “from Ogilby’s America p. 169.” A copy of this rare London

Atlas of 1671 is in the State Library at Albany and shows the whole of this map instead of the part of it given in Winsor. From from this it is clearly taken from the earlier Visscher map.

List of  Maps  and  Super  Illustrations / Books

Images for Nova Francia et Regiones Adiacenti

Visscher Map New Netherlands

Adriaen vander Donck’s map of the New Netherlands

Lucini  map of the New Netherlands

DeLaet’s   Beschryvinge van west Indien

Doctor Holden states that the lake had four names, namely, An-di-a-ta-roc-te,13 given it by the Iroquois according to Father Jogues, and meaning “the place where the lake contracts,” Can-i-de-ri-oit,14 “the tail of the lake” (Champlain), supposed to be a Mohawk term, Lac du St. Sacrement, “lake of the blessed sacrement,” {sic} given it by Father Jogues in 1646,15 and Lake George, in honor of the reigning monarch, bestowed by Major General William Johnson in 1755, in honor of his king.16

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